38 Hungarian dialects (Carpathian Basin)

The 38 Hungarian dialects in the Carpathian Basin

The Hungarian dialects – The world's first complex dialect map by computer

 

            This chapter deals with the first complex computer-generated map for the dialects of any language. Its summary was first published in 1982-1983, in Hungarian monthly magazine of Vancouver. As a matter of fact, in those days the author had found an earlier linguistic atlas, probably that of Scotland, claiming that its maps had been prepared by the use of computer. However, the computer there had been involved only in drawing the individual maps, and it was not a complex comparison of 100 words, only one at a time.

            Our linguistic project was based on the huge Atlas of Hungarian Dialects (“A Magyar nyelvjárások atlasza,” 1949-1969), consisting of about 1500 maps, one for each word or expression. Our project of evaluating this atlas was financed by the author of this book, and successfully executed in 1982 though the help of two computer programmers in Vancouver, British Columbia. Its total cost was about Canadian $2000, excluding at least one thousand man-hours. Latter work included the placing of the selected hundred old Hungarian words in strictly different groups. These were not cognate groups, but any variant of a word had to form a separate group if any of its letters was even slightly different. The printed forms of each word contained several special letters intelligible only for linguists. The professional linguists that had collected the dialectal variants on the field had also determined those special transcriptions for all variants, based the laws of international phonetics. For example, sounds marked by different letters and accents (such as à, á, â, ä, or å) were considered different for the comparison.

            It was not an easy task to select the one hundred typical old Hungarian words. I had to work with the words that gave dialectal variants, and neglected the ones without variants. In many cases, the notion seemed old enough, showing good variants, but the collectors covered only every third village or so. Therefore, we could not include them. We picked hundred words that had variants at every collection point, namely in 395 villages of the Carpathian Basin. Of course, if the people in certain villages did not know an animal or a plant (for example, the poppy seed), they ended up in a separate group. Fortunately, such situation hardy happened.

Sometimes it was hard to tell if a word has had slight differences in the pronunciation, or the different forms had been the result of a genetic difference. Fortunately again, our job was the automatic registration of the perfect matches, and it did not involve any judgement. Thus, in the case of the quince, an apple-like fruit, one may find variants as birs, biss, bissóma, or birsalma. All of these four would form a separate group in our evaluation, regardless any partial similarity.

            In many cases, in most of the villages the people used more than one dialectal variant for a certain word. Therefore, if the first village had two phonetic forms marked “a” and “b,” while the 395th village used three variants marked “b,” “c” and “k,” then the computer indicated a match between them for that word, since both had the variant “b.”

            Mathematically, hundred words of each of the 395 villages had to be compared with the same hundred words pronounced in the other 394 villages. This comparison meant hundred times 77815 = 7,781,500 possible combinations, according to our formula shown previously on page 47. Actually, as we often had more than a variant per village, the number of comparisons was well over ten millions. This comparison manually, without a custom-made computer program, would have taken generations.

            The first step after the establishment of the groups of variants was entering the results onto standard FORTRAN code forms. These 8.5 by 14 inches green tables with proper columns and rows allowed us to place the numerical information on 395 code sheets. In 1982, a data entry firm named Elan Data Makers in Vancouver converted this information into 5080 punch cards. (We had to double check each of those cards, and the several errors or missing data found had to be corrected.) A specially written program ran the punch cards by a high performance computer of the largest university of British Columbia. The results included a huge roll of magnetic tape, and two printouts of several hundreds of pages, in the shape of two books. (One of these books was sent to Budapest, for the Institute of Linguistic Sciences of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, and the other copy to Calgary, for the Encyclopaedia Hungarica.) Of course, most of these computer-related tools are outdated by now, but it was the only way in 1982.

            Our “book” made of the printout pages listed the similarities in percentages. Thus, a little “chapter” contained the zero % similarities. Interestingly, it showed 38 pairs of villages, in which none of the selected hundred words had been pronounced identically. Although, as we have mentioned, the phonetic definitions had been strict, speakers from such two villages perhaps would be unable to understand each other. Although the situation of differences in reality is probably much less severe, speakers of the village Pakod (in Zala county) would have serious difficulty to communicate with a person from the Transylvanian village Lozsád.

            The highest similarity did not reach the 100% in any pair of villages. The highest match was 96%. This “high” region is where we started our examination, in order to get a map with blocks of dialects. Having been the first test of this nature, there was no guarantee that we would get any clear pattern or conclusion. Theoretically, the evaluation may have given us a total mess, without any core area. My secret expectation that the map would show the seven tribes (or the 108 Hungarian clans, as some medieval chronicler claimed), remained unfulfilled.

            These highest “peaks” of similarity in the printout can be visualized as separating mountains starting from their peaks. The peak defines the mountains, and the decreasing elevations of the contour lines correspond to the percentages of the similarities in the dialects, for the sake of an allegory. Thus, we started with the highest, and moved down to the lower percentages of similarities. If a village had at least 80% match with other villages, or at least one village, within a forming dialectal block, then it ended up in that block. The solid lines on our map indicate these blocks, called core areas in linguistics. Within each core area, each village has at least 80% similarity with one or more villages within the same core area. This rule is valid for the whole Carpathian Basin, except for the core areas marked by L, X, Y, Z, Zs, where the similarities are less than half of that value. Perhaps the long time of separation, or, the isolating effect of the high mountains is responsible for this lower similarity. These five areas can be called “Transylvanian dialects.” Dialect “L” is located at the border of the counties Tolna and Baranya. This is the only dialect that is not really “historical.” It was formed by Hungarian settlers fleeing from the Russians or Rumanians near the end of World War II. As I understand, they fled from Transylvania, or, rather from the “Csángó-Magyar” villages on the eastern slopes of the Carpathian Mountains in Bukovina. This is the explanation why the speech of Kászonaltíz in Transylvania is more similar to the speech of the far away Hidas in dialect “L’, than to that of Csíkrákos “almost next door.”

            The maps (Figures 12-13)show 38 Hungarian dialectal areas. Thirty-seven of them seem “historical.” The long distances or minor topographical obstacles (hills, rivers) allow high similarities between certain villages or towns. For example, the words of Vének (near Bratislava) and Orosháza have a 72% agreement, despite a distance of 258 kilometres as the crow flies. However, the pronounced words of Torockószentgyörgy and Vajasd, both in Transylvania, show only 20% similarity, despite of their distance of 30 kilometres only. You can take a look at our spreadsheet (Figure 14) showing all thirty-eight dialects, marked by numbers of the Hungarian alphabet. The numbers of the table indicate strict phonetic similarities of words in percentages.

 

            In our opinion, the “real Magyar” dialect of the ancient “Megyer” tribe may correspond to the largest Hungarian dialect marked by “M” on our map. This large block is located in a safe central position, surrounded by the other dialects. There is no direct proof to support our view, but the standard Hungarian shows the highest correlation with this dialect “M.”

            Another conclusion is that the locations of place-names containing the seven tribal names recorded in the old Byzantine source do not seem to mean anything. For example, we may guess that the speech of the villages Alsónyék and Felsőnyék (Lower and Upper “Nyék”) should be very similar. Unfortunately, this is not the case: they have only 28% match between their words. Thus, it is hard to tell which one of the two belonged once to the tribe called “Nyék.” This circumstance may indicate that perhaps there were dialectal differences within certain Hungarian tribes, even 1100 years ago. It is possible that the first Hungarian tribal name, the “Nyék” at the beginning of the list of the Byzantine emperor actually meant the three tribes of the Kabars. The nomadic nations usually sent ahead their recently joined allies. Also, the Kabars were famous warriors. The “first tribe” did not mean first in importance, only being first in the wars.

            No one can study the dialect of a language without knowing the location and the boundaries of those dialects. Therefore, the map we are offering is the first step only. The further steps need full-time linguists. My mandate here is coming near to an end. However, the gentle reader maybe accepts some of my preliminary conclusions as follow.

            First of all, the Hungarian is not a uniform language. It has several dialectal components, often with totally different roots that could be separated somehow. Of course, this shall include the evaluation of thousands of our old books and documents, so their dialects could be identified with their modern remnants. In general, a simple language should not have two different words for notions like dog, bone, sky, star, air, song, or the verbs finds and cuts. The Hungarians do (or did) have those duplicates or triplicates for them: kutya or eb; csont or tetem; ég or menny; csillag or húgy; levegő, lég or ájer; ének or dal; talál, lel or kap; and vág, metsz, szel or szeg, accordingly.

            Some quite basic, although not the oldest, words help to reveal the original words of a compound or mixed language like the Hungarian: there is a long dialectal list for the notion “naked” or “nude.” By examining only this single item, that is not a foolproof way though, we can conclude that “meztelen” is the real Hungarian word, literally “dress+without.” Thus, we can eliminate the dialects L, N, Ó, Ö, R, S, Ü, V, W, Z, Zs, and Y, for all these have various very different dialectal forms that do not resemble the word “meztelen” at all, and do not mean anything in the proper Magyar language, except in their dialectal rule. In addition, we van find numerous common Hungarian words that contain these roots “mez” or “-telen.” For example, “jel+telen” means “unmarked.” Even the noun roots “jel” (“mark, sign”) and “mez” are used in a combined form: “jel+mez” forms “costume.” Furthermore, the word “jel” can be combined with “szó” (meaning “word”) to form “jel+szó” (meaning “sign-word” that is “password” in proper English. A word “szótlan” (“wordless” or “speechless”) also exists.However, we cannot do these tricks with the non-standard Hungarian words taken from the dialects of non-Hungarian origin. Similarly, you can examine some basic compound words in English, or in other languages. Testing several words will lead you to a solution, telling what words belong to the deeper layers of that proper language, and which words do not.

            As for the origin of these historical dialects, it is probable that many of them had ancient, so-called “Finno-Ugrian” origin. (We must use this definition, although we are not certain that this artificial classification makes any sense for our research. Simply, compound languages cannot be classified or squeezed into a particular drawer.) Whatever is the case, a few Hungarian dialects may have been the remote relatives of the Finnish or Estonian language, but not the majority of them.

            “Even in relatively close languages such as Hungarian and Finnish, links are the exception rather than the rule,” realized Lord (1966: 34). “Indo-Iranian loan-words in the Finno-Ugrian group attest the unity of Indo-Iranian at a period which it is unfortunately not possible to determine; all we can be certain of is that at this period Indo-Iranian was a distinct unit and that this linguistic group was in contact with another linguistic group of Finno-Ugrian speakers, and it is probable that the contact took place in what is now Southern Russia. This supports the evidence from other sources of subsequent migration through Persia and into Northern India of Indo-Iranian speaking groups” (Lord, 1966: 228).

            As we have seen at the Philippine languages, many modern linguists take it granted that the grammars and the structure of all languages formed between 500,000 and 5,000 years ago. The communist linguist Professor P. Hajdú shared this widely accepted mainstream theory, attributing a similar old age to the supposed Finno-Ugrian proto-language. My difficulty comes here. I am unaware of any instrument that would indicate the age of any grammar in any language. We do not have any written proof from before, say, 4000 BC that would show the existence of grammar in those days. The Hungarian language certainly was not a language in which the grammar had been much older than the words. Hungarians in general, including myself, hate to learn artificial grammatical rules. (In the past history of any country, the speakers of the most powerful dialect kept suppressing the weaker dialects. Thus their grammars usually reflect the dialect and interest of those upper classes that did not necessarily form the majority.)

            If it is true that all languages of the world began with their grammars, then the Hungarians are very different, with less developed brains. Their children first learn the basic words, and the grammar comes much later. If their injured soldiers would end up in a hospital abroad, they first words may be something like this: “I like blond nurse.” A Kurdish soldier may say, “nurse blond I like.” Everybody in the hospital would understand both of them without using any grammar. A patient from a third world country may say, “Nurse blond like I.” This word order may cause some laughter, for he is obviously not blond like the nurse.

            Similarly, if you have a nanny whose English is terrible, the children would still understand her story as follows: “Little red girl walk forest wolf come eat. Wolf go house eat lady old. Gun man kill wolf ugly. Girl old lady jump live happy.” The kids would understand this tale of the Little Red Riding Hood, and even enjoy it. To serve a story without grammar is quite acceptable when there is no better solution. Perhaps the ancestors of the Spanish nation knew the meaning of their grammatical horror words called “pretérito plusquamperfecto” fifty thousand years ago. However, I am sure that most Maya Indians in Mexico, although speaking Spanish, would not have any idea what to do with these words.

            “Even within a given language, difference is of more importance than order...As Saussure aptly put it: “in language there are only differences” … “The panchronic view of language has so far not emerged. The general principles governing language in all its aspects may yet come as a surprise to linguists, if one supposes that these can be found. If such a panchronistic view ever becomes possible, a synthesis of the historical (diachronic) and contemporaneous (synchronic) will take shape. Panchronic linguistics would necessarily take in a wider horizon, and would to a greater extent than linguistics does at the present time bring in the poet, historian and social psychologist for instance” (Lord, 1966: 137).  

            A child will “murder the language first” before learning to speak it, wrote Lord (1966: 57). My only contribution for the linguistic logic of small children is a short one. I was surprised when my daughter, about age 2 or 3, made attempts to form new words. Her mother spoke in Spanish to her, and her father in Hungarian. The verb “comes” is “viene” in Spanish, and “jön” in Hungarian. Soon she started to use systematically an invented new word as “vjön.” It was intelligible both for her mother and father at the same time, and she kept using it for years. Now, if she were in the company of ten younger siblings, she could have taughtthem to this new word. This way, during many centuries, a large clan or tribe may have formed, with a slightly different new vocabulary. However, this is not a real dialectic or Darwinist evolution of the speech, because it would not have happened without two languages at the beginning.

            There is a confusion caused by the semantic ambiguity of the words language and dialect. Probably such official linguistic definitions exist but they are not readily available for the author of this study. It seems probably that the exact meanings of these two words are somewhat vague, even for publishers of linguistic books. To make this question more complicated, we often read about language continuums and dialect continuums. If we have a link of six languages within a large area, we can travel through them, observing that they form a gradual transition. For example, you can choose a route from Lisbon to Barcelona, along which the speech will change gradually. If you can speak a mixture of Portuguese and Spanish, like myself, people will understand your “Portuñol” all the way. The Catalan language is spoken in the northeastern part of Spain but you do not really need to learn that. It is practically identical with Spanish. Still, Catalan is officially a language. In our opinion, it was a language but now is only a dialect. Similarly, Asturian and Galician may be called ‘languages’ by some authorities, but they are actually dialects now.

A person who travelled through the Hungarian villages from Burgenland to the southeastern corner of Transylvania 40 years ago would have had a similar situation. If he understood the central dialects of Hungary, and he spoke the literary language of that country, he was able to communicate everywhere, even if half of the words used were different. However, if a person travels through the upper part of North America, he or she may have quite serious problems. Let us suppose that the route starts at Anchorage (Alaska), through the Yukon Territory. It follows the shoreline of Hudson Bay, and crosses over to Greenland. That person will realize that a single dictionary of the Inuit (Eskimo) language is useful in some areas, but it is quite useless somewhere else. One may rightfully suggest that there are several different Inuit languages.

Another example is the Serbo-Croatian language. If we want to call it as a single language, it’s all right. If we want to call them separately Serbian and Croatian, it is correct as well. The situation is similar with the Czech and the Slovakian languages, or, with the Hindi and the Urdu. These are rather cultural, historical and political issues that often ignore the opinion of the linguist. It is very hard to draw a sharp line between language and dialect. We still do not know at what point, what degree of confusion or frustration, does a speech become unintelligible for us. These serious difficulties of communication may start earlier for an illiterate or less educated (?) person, and much later for a person who has traveled a lot and has read many books with old and dialectal words. One may argue that you can go to any point of the globe and enter a church. If you can distinguish which part of the preacher’s speech was the Lord’s Prayer (Our Father, etc.), then you speak the same language. This theory does not work, either. It probably only means that your language belongs the same language family. But even this theory has serious problems. If an Estonian enters a church in Finland, he may understand half of the message. However, if a Hungarian listens the same message, he would not understand anything of it. This person would not observe when the Lord’s Prayer started, or when it ended. One possible explanation would be that the Hungarian is not close relative of the other two languages, and the traditional classification is biased.

A group of linguists could sit down and make some important decisions about definitions. It is a must to define the notion of  “different languages” or “different dialects” with certain features, also by an objective, measurable, and mathematically calculable formula. Differences from slight confusion and frustration to a lack of illegibility shall mark “different dialects.” Also, these requirements must be projected back to the past, in order to apply it to historical linguistics. Some people would ask, what justifies the latter requirement? Well, we are living in a modern world where most people can read and write, even if they speak very different languages. If a rich person in Singapore has a Bosnian maid, and their languages are totally different, they may have a day of perfect communication. He may write her a list where to go shopping, indicating the name of the supermarket. Then, he can give her a long list of things to buy, with numbers and quantities. For example, 1 Pepsi-Cola, 3 pepperoni pizzas, 2 big macs, 1 pound of Nescafe, 1 Lipton tea, 10 Cadbury chocolates, 4 pounds of bananas, 10 kiwi fruits, 2 pounds of mozzarella, 2 Colgate toothpaste, and 10 computer diskettes (2HD). The employee, knowing only brand names, numbers and weights without grammar, may return with the products that were required, and this cannot be called a total lack of communication.        

However, let us stop here for a moment, for some historical orientation. Many experts believe that the divergence is more significant trend than the convergence, others may assume that the opposite is true. In our opinion, these two trends have existed side by side during the history of the languages and dialects. You will find persons who are observing only the divergence. They imagine a stem or a trunk, which began to shoot branches, and those became divided into smaller and smaller branches. Other researchers concentrate their research on the sources. They observe that many tiny creeks join, forming rivers, and those run into large lakes or the sea. Both perspective is correct to a certain degree. Divergence and convergence are co-existing. Despite of this, we think that it can be very misleading to draw “family trees” for language families, and recontruct a trunk for that idealized tree, as we mentioned in the previous chapter. (Particularly, where there was no tree at all, only bush.)

            Many thinkers are adamant in the theory that all dialects of all languages are the results of gradual changes during the last few centuries. Most authorities accept the existence of dialects, say, 2,000 years ago. They accept the existence of modern dialects as well. However, most of them treat them totally independently. You cannot find too many claims about the continuity of most dialects during several millennia. The relative lack of these theories gives an impression that the continuity of old dialects does not exist in any country. This way we discard a possibility that has not been properly examined and analyzed. Another effect is that old dialects and dialectology usually end up in the back burner, because not enough scholars admit their importance. A similar negligence can be seen in modern books dealing with historical linguistics about the ancient, usually cosmogonical, legends and myths of any tribe or nation. The dialects and traditions are considered as bizarre curiosities only, without logical foundations, like a haphazard mess. One cannot agree with such a sad and negative approach. Perhaps these two elements should form an organic and well-defined part of comparative linguistics. The dialects and the mythological traditions are like the genes in the human body. They are the only sources that have recorded the history and the origin of the languages until the writing was invented.

            The theory of quick language changes reminds one to the following scenario. A “scientific” movie could be easily produced showing the possibility of rapid changes. The moviemaker may introduce a female beagle to the public. Her name is Princess. She has a short hair and a nice beige colour, with a body 18 inches long, with a four pounds weight. Now the reporter throws a large piece of liver into a dense bush. A minute later he begins to call her out, ‘Princess! Princess!’ A similar animal runs out from the same bush, apparently understanding her name. She has a bit longer hair and a nice beige colour, with a body 18 inches long, and weights five pounds. (Obviously her original weight plus that of the meat.) But a slight difference appears: she does not seem to be a beagle, but rather a German shepherd. The scientific conclusion is that beagles eating liver can turn into German shepherds in a short time, supporting the Darwinist theory of revolutionary changes. The audience is totally convinced about the truth of the “scientific” movie. Only very few of them suspect a trick: when the liver landed near a sleeping German shepherd, also called “Princess” by coincidence. She woke up confused and scared. She wanted to taste the meat but the hungry beagle expelled her. In that moment, she heard her name, and ran to us with the hope of getting some meat. Only the sceptics realized that actually two animals had participated in the movie, and there was no revolutionary change or evolution at all. Similar quick changes would explain the mystery in the theory of certain revolutionary language shifts.

            About the study of sound change or diachronic phonology, Lord (1966: 81) wrote, “sound change is a term employed to describe the passage or historical transition from a given phoneme or group of phonemes to another, e.g. the change of Germanic sk into Old English sh. ... And as for the question: how? It is not even certain that sounds do actually change; it could be that new pronunciations are substituted sounds spread by imitation or some other process.”

            Lord (1966: 60) has found some controversial issues, “German has Kopf (from Lat. cuppa “cup”). The French tote has been usually taken as the derivative of Vulgar Latin test “a piece of baked earthenware, an earthen pot” (although this has lately been questioned)... The Latin loquat “to speak” survives in none of the Romance languages.” In our opinion, the Germans have not borrowed the notion of “head” from the Latin. Speakers generally had words for their heads long time before using cups. Also, certain barbarian kings made cups of the skulls of their defeated enemies, but no one could produce a human head out of a cup.

            But let us return to the dialects. To be honest, we do not know how much could our dialect map tell about Hungary’s Linguistic Substratum. “Substratum theories are based on the assumption that the absorption of newcomers or immigrants by indigenous populations has brought about certain changes. This has often been brought forward to explain the Gallic characteristics of French... Similar attempts have been made to assess the possible influence of prehistoric Etruscan and Ligurian on the various Italian dialects. The main flaw in these theories is that it is impossible to know what the indigenous languages were actually like, phonetically or otherwise... one finds oneself caught in an infinite regress, because there must have been ‘pre-indigenous’ and ‘anti-pre-indigenous’ populations in these areas at an even more remote time” (Lord, 1966: 84).

            “A Family Tree of the Indo-European Languages” (Baldi, 1983, inside of rear cover) includes nine languages that claimed to be descendants of the Latin. In orther words, according to this nice family tree, without the existence of the Latin language and the Roman conquests two thousand years ago these nine languages (including French, Spanich, Italian, and Portuguese) would not exist today. This is a very brave treory that has been universally accepted, but no scholar had ever proved the correctness and the sound logic of this claim. In our opinion, all these nine languages would still exist today, although on a level of poverty in the technical, political, legal, or scientific fields. Let us remind ourselves to the opinion of Lord (1966), Classical Latin was to some extent however an artificial literary language. I accept his statement, but how can an artificial literary language (or, rather the Roman-Latin dialect artificially elevated to a throne as international language like the Esperanto) become the mother of nine languages??

Just stop for a humble comparison. So far as I know, Hungary was the last country of the world (except the Vatican) that kept using the Latin language as the country’s official language in the Parliament. On the other hand, the governor Miklós (Nicholas) Bethlen about three centuries ago complained that he had hardly been able to find a single person in his country (Transylvania) who spoke Latin, even at an intermediate level.

I am not sure if an average linguist can get my point: in the Roman Empire, a slim educated upper class spoke (or rather read and wrote) Latin, but Latin was a second language for perhaps 95% of the population. They understood the basic words in the army, or at the court. However, this artificial Latin language nowhere had a solid basis, and died out everywhere in the Roman Empire. Perhaps a dialect in Rome or in Spain has the strongest traces of Latin. The Spanish and French languages would certainly exist without the Latin, for those countries have had a dense population before the Roman conquest. Why would linguists assume a pre-Roman Welsh language, while denying the possibility of pre-Roman Spanish or French languages? No one has given answer for these concerns. Elcock (1960: 173) wrote of the Spanish enigma, “Its spoken Latin absorbed a notable variety of pre-Roman elements from a most ill-defined substratum.” In our opinion, the problem of these badly defined substratums exists in most languages, including the Hungarian. Posner (1966: 71) agrees that in the pre-Roman times, “Europe was inhabited by many different peoples speaking many tongues, about whom we know very little.” But even if we know very little about them, it would be irresponsible to assume that the ancestors of the French, Italians, Spaniards, and Portuguese two millennia ago were less civilized than the speakers of America or Austronesia that have already had developed languages, and supposedly uded grammars for 10,000 or 50,000 years. Are we certain that “everything is under control” in our historical linguistics? Posner tells honestly about the Romance languages, “I venture the prediction that its [i.e., that of the lexico-statistics] glottochronological accretion cannot.” The safest way is not to assume dates for separations.

Cook (2003: A13) reviews a paper of Gray Russell, telling, “The root of all the Indo-European languages was spoken about 9,000 years ago, according to a computer analysis of 87 languagesdetailed in the latest issueof the journal Nature.” The paper assumes that the word “mother” and the French “mère” came from the same root. (We may add the butter: its English dialectal “barö” perhaps was born under the influence of the French “beurre.”) However, Crystal (1987/91: 45) states, “it is not possible to talk of Indo-European… [that] had many dialects.”

            One cannot deny the increasing retreat of traditional dialects into rural and more remote areas and into the eldest age groups of the population. If we want to find dialectal areas, we will find them in most languages. If we do not want to find them and prefer to ignore them, they simply do not exist. If something does not have a definite outline and boundaries, it cannot exist, one often argues. However, a swamp, a sea, a bay, a peninsula, a cloud, smoke or fog, or even a continent like Oceania may lack a definite boundary and they still exist. It all depends on your scientific definition: at what strict physical conditions can it be called ‘fog,’ etc. You can find a possible shortest straight line across a peninsula, and that line would separate it from the mainland. (This kind of definition would disqualify India, Somalia or Yucatan as real peninsulas, while Kamchatka, Labrador or the Malay Peninsula would qualify.)

The 38 Hungarian dialects (integrated in related groups)

 

Please note that every tenth Hungarian word (except their further versions) is shown it italics, in order to facilitate the quick identification of the 323 selected items, separated by commas. (The less common or unique dialectal forms are in parentheses.)

 

Core area A: búza, sása, rozs, fej, rozsda, üszök, kígvirág, pipacs, kosz, bükköny [“vesce” in French; called “bükköny” in every Hungarian dialect, except where shown differently, between items #9 and #11], kukorica, levél, fej (instead of “cső”), haja, torzsa [this item #15 is called “csutka” in most Hungarian dialects, except if shown differently], zsurmol, borsó (standard Hungarian “bab”!), hüvely, buborka, sóska, csoláng, füj, buzogány, zsúp, kereszt, igaszeg, iga, vállfa, zabla, puska, sípkarika, agy, küllő, talpfa, oldal, szekér, fogas, csoport, ekeló, vánkos, kormánydeszka, hecselli, himpér, ribizli, egres, fej, kaccsa, macskaméz, juha, behordás, épül, majter, födélfa+etc., födéltartó, kötis, hiel (A3)+hí (A4), (ajtó)tok, boza+tengeriboza+szelemce, murkon, vörösrépa, mákhüöl, mákfej, napforduló, líp, méhkas, méh, virággya, krumpi, peterzse, fony, nyángat+nyafog, körmöz, harap, liheg, fijazik, orgonyál, emse, emse, malacozik, görög, kanász, disznócsorda, bak, gida, barázdás, késztűső,  csökönyös, tulak, tinó, csikózik, csokló, piros, monyas, pattant, mező [meadow in English], szállás, disznóól, récegunár, réce, gúnárzik, zsiba, bubul+bubozik+pukkul, majorság, galambház, kiássuk, kútkáva, (kút)gém, deszkakert+deszkakerítés, grádics, talicska, köszörükő, örv, nagyfejsze, kisfejsze, mosófa, fejőedény, öntöző, diezsen, pohár, késsel, kalán, kurukla, tűz, siérhokli, kemence, kifacsarja, öblíti, leveti, inlett+illett, vánkos, szalmazsák, …?, ciha, pad, kisszék, vakablak, szoba, talál, okád, ver, köhög, csámcsog, danogat+dalol, nevet, nyújtózkodik, lúdtalpú, turcsi [au nez retrousse in French], tígbörös+libabőrös, mesztelen, kakukkszaros, …?, bunkó, biercen, pattanás [bouton in French], anyajegy, comb, íz, gyűrüsujj, hüökk, tenyér, ököl, muszkli [Muscle in English], köldök, ripli+ripni [rib and ripple in English], ádámcsutka, szája széle, íny, (csöcsfog+szopófog+tejfog?), halánték, viselős, napam, ipam, lakodalom, kérés, (férfi)gyerek, ópapa, ómama, …?, kitli+kikli, báb+búb, ingnyak, prézvuost [likely from German], sonka, csörge, böllér, mecc, forradás, lángos, szike, süttojás, köpül, író, mácsik+pucinudli, flekkelli, metélt, karafon, lekvár, kompót, egyenes, hozzánk, nékün, kiső, beső, kül, túsó, főső, sehun, itthon, szomi, öccö(r), nyű, brázdofíreg, gönc+göncöl+gindzgönc, bodobács, lüöding, sáska, lőrinc, donguo [taon in French], bogár, kígyó, békanyál, vérszopó, (unknown; burkus in A1), szárnyasegér, …?, voari, …?, mókus, sárdík, vakonda, göncöl-, tejút+(mennyei út?), búbospacsirta, búbos banka, patkány, egér, kitisztul+feverekedik, ködöl, dörög, fölhő, hóharmat, lék, toucska+(mocsola), alkuszik, térbetül, bál, csigér/csenger, gerencsér, hajó [navette in French], takácsszék, motolla, motolla, rokka, kouccon, szála, gyarat, tiló, velő, fol, foluo, lik, királ, műhel, fuor, kapdoz, fogdoz, lököd, halla, írjon, esik, rakj, fe/fő, tónám, ütötte, megjavut, meghat, kátt, nyomjuk, át-, pipál, gondolkodik, jel-/gyel-, ó(l)vasó, kötnénk, nézté, lőné, lő, tegyé, mondasz, taníccsa, taníttya, egyé+ögyé, mész, menek, jepazut [similarly “jeteszem,” instead of “elteszem”], rí, beszétem, mondanak, füröszti, mekhí, tesz, visz, vinnénk, evett, ivott, aluggyon, aluggyak, alszok, vannak, megy, elbódul, szemfény+szemvilág, huny, nyerstégla, nyeve, hajnalban, éjfélkor, pünkösdkor, székhe, (Erzsiék)hö, -tó or -tú, tollas, csúszkál.

 

 

Core areas Á-B-C-CS-D-E: búza, sása, rozs, fej, rozsda, csörmő+(csörmöc), kígvirág, pipacs, kosz, bükköny, kukorica, levél, fej+(cső in Á), haja, torzsa (Á-C)+tusa (B-CS-D)+csutka (E), zúz (Á-C-CS-E)+morzsol (Á)+köpeszt (B-D), bab (Á-B-C)+borsó (CS-D-E), hüvely, buborka, sóska, csollán, gasz (Á)+gaz (E)+füj (B-C-CS-D), buzogány, zsúp, tizes (Á)+kereszt (B-C-CS-D-E), igaszeg, iga, vonyó (Á)+vállfa (B-C-CS-D-E), zabla (Á-B-C-CS-E)+zablavas (D), puska, sípkarika, agy, küllő, talpfa, oldal, szekér, borona (Á-C-CS-E)+bránno (B-D), csoport+hant (both in Á)+göröngy [ground in English, in the rest of areas], ekeló, vánkos, kormányvas, csitke (Á)+csitkenye (Á)+csicskenye (CS)+csipkebogyó (B-C-E)+seggibuga, etc. (D), himpér, ribizli, egres, fej, kaccsa, macskaméz (Á-B-C)+cicamé(s)z (B-C)+(cicamaca in B), juha (Á)+gyoha (B-C-CS-D-E), hordás (Á)+kepe-hordás (B-E)+gabonahordás (CS)+jószákhordás (D)+takarulás (Á)+takarodás (E), épül, majter, ollószár (Á-B-C-CS)+olló (Á)+szalufa (D-E), koszorúfa (Á+C)+falgerenda (D)+falfa (B)+ koszorúgerenda (CS), kakasüllő (Á-CS-E)+szalufakötés (D)+kötis (B)+keresztkötő (C), pallás (Á-C-CS-D-E), ajtószárfa, szelence+(tengeriboddza, bozda Á-B), sárgarépa, vörösrépa, mákhüöl (Á-B-C)+mákguba (Á)+mákhéj(ja) (Cs-D-E), mákfej+(mákguba Á), tányérrózsa (B-CS-E)+tányérvirág (B-CS-E)+napraforgó (D-Á?), lamp(os) (Á)+líp (B-CS-D-E)+sonkou (C), méhkas+zsombékkas (part of Á), méh, cimbergye (Á-C)+címere (B-CS-D-E), krumpi, petrezselyem?+petemzsirom (CS-E)+petrezselem (C)+petris (D), dorombol, nyávog, körmöz (B-C-CS-D-E, part of Á)+karmol (Á), harap, lehincül (Á)+liheg (B-C-CS-E)+zihál (D), kölykezik (Á-B-C-CS-E)+ fijazik (D), tutul, nősténykutya, emse (Á-CS)+göbe (B-C-D), malacozik, görög, kanász, disznócsorda (Á-B-CS-E)+fuóka (C-D), bak, gida, hajszás, csás, kötekedő (Á)+csökönyös (B-C-CS-D-E), tinó, tinó, csikózik, csukló+csánk (D), piros, csődör (Á)+monyas (B-C-CS-D), durrant+cserdít (E), mező [meadow in English] (Á-B-C-CS-D), kerítés [no information in Á], disznóól (Á-B-D-E)+hidas (C-CS), hímréce, réce, gúnárzik (Á-CS-D)+bubul (B-C-E), zsiba, cicerél (?) (Á or E)+gubbul (B-D)+bubul (C-CS), majorság, galambház, kiszeggyük (Á-C)+kiássuk (B-D), kútkáva, (kút)gém (Á-C-CS-E)+vezér (D)+csigavezér (D)+csiga (B), pallang (Á)+deszkakert (B-C-CS)+deszkakerítés (D-E), lajtergya (Á-C-CS)+oudal (B-D), talicska, kaszakő, örv (Á)+kaszakarika (B-C-CS-D-E), nagyfejsze, kisfejsze (Á-B-D)+(kis)balta (C-CS-E), lapicka, zsieter (Á-B-C-CS)+föjűke (D)+fejőedény (E), öntözőkanna [can in English], vindü, pohár, késse (B-C-CS-D-E), kalán, kurugla (Á-CS)+kurigla (C)+szamalu (B)+szemvonu (D), szikra [izkra in Slavic] (Á)+parás [brasa in Spanish] (C-CS)+sziporka [spark in English] (D?)+szeny-parázs (B), siérhokli, kemence, kifacsarja, öblögeti (Á-B-CS-D)+öblíti (C-E), fölbontja (Á)+lebontja (B-C-CS-D), angi(n)+-ciha, vánkos, szalmazsák, cilinder+(lámpaüveg E), ciha, pad, kisszék, vakablak, szoba, talál, okád, ver, köhög, csámcsog, énekül (Á)+danogat (B-C-D)+danú(l) (CS-E), nevet, nyújtózkodik, lúdtalpú, turcsi, borsós (Á-C-CS-D)+(tígbőrös or libabőrös B), mesztelen, szeplős, evesség, krumpli+(bütyök only in E, related to “potato”), szüöcsing (Á)+fökin (B-C-CS-D)+(szemölcs in E), pattanás (Á-B-E)+buborcsek (C-CS-D), anyagyel, comb, íz, gyürüsujj, hüvelykujj, tenyér, ököl, izom, köldök, oldalborda, ádámcsutka, szája széle, fogín, tejfog (B-C-CS-D)+csöcsfog or szopófog (and tejfog?) (Á), halánték, viselős, napam, ipam, lakodalom, kézfogó+(egyesség D), (férfi)gyerek (B-C-CS-D), nagyapa (Á)+öregpapa (B-C)+papa (CS)+öregapám (D), nagyanya (Á-B-CS-D)+nyanya (C), papucs, szoknya, kézelő, ingnyak (Á-B-C-CS-E)+gallér (D), prézbors [pressed wurst in Germanic?], sonka, tepertő or töpörtyű (Á?)+csörge (B-C-CS-D), disznóölő, mecc, forradás, lángos, szike (Á-C-CS-D)+sárgája (B-E?), süttojás+(zsirostojás B), köpül, író, pöcsmácsik, kockatészta (Á)+paca (B-C-CS-D-E), metélt, fánk, lekvár, kompót+befőtt (CS-D-E), egyenes, hozzánk, nékün, kiső, beső, kívül (Á)+kül (B-C-CS-D-E), túsó, főső, sehun, itthon, szomgyus (Á)+szomjas (B-C-CS-D-E), öccö(r), kukac, csim(m)asz, budabácsi (Á-C-CS)+(bödebogár or katabogár D), istentehene (Á)+bodobács (B-C-CS-D-E), pille (Á)+pergyuka (B-D)+pilláncs (C-CS), sáska (Á-C-CS)+kaszás (D)+szöcske (B), szitakötő (Á)+kigyóőrző (B-C-CS-E)+kígyópásztor (D), dongou (or dongó or dongu or donguo) (B-C-CS-D), bogár, kígyó, békanyál, pióca, ebihal, szárnyasegér (Á-B-C-CS-E)+cicusegér (D), …borz or …disznó (Á)+…borz (B-C-CS-D), kánya [means grey crow], csóka+kánya [similar to “black bird” in Urdu] (D), mókus, gyík (Á-B-D-E)+sárgyik (C-CS), vakondok, göncöl-, tejút (Á-C-CS)+roma útja (B)+hadak útja (D), búbospacsirta, búbos banka (Á-C-CS)+hupota [huppe in French] (B-D), patkány, egér, kiviggyan (Á)+kiderül (B-C-CS-D-E), szemetel (Á)+ködözik (B-D), szitál (?) (C-CS), dörög, fölhő, hóharmat, lék, pocsola (C-D)+tócsa (?) (Á or B)+mocsola (C), alkuszik, térbetül (Á-C-CS-E)+térdel (?) (B-D), bál, csigér or csenger, gerencsér+(fazekas or fazikas E), fapicsa (Á)+ vetüllü/vetülle (B-C-CS-D), faj(s)z (B-D), gombolyító, motolla, rokka (Á-C-D)+(rokla B), kóc, szála, gyarat+(gerebenyöz E), tiló, velő, folik+fol (only “fol” in B-C-D), foluo, lik, királ, műhel, four (Á-D)+fuvar (B-C-CS-E), kapkod (Á-C-CS)+kapdoz (B-E)+kapkaludik (D), fogdoz [duzho means “much” in Polish], lököd (Á-C-CS-E)+zököd or zököt (B-D), halla, írjon, esik, rakj, fe or fö, tónám, ütötte, megjavut, meghat(t), kátt, nyomjuk, át-, pipál, gondolkodik, jel- or gyel-, ouvass (Á)+ó(l)vasó (B-C-CS-D-E), kötnénk, nézté, lőné, lő (Á-B-C-CS-E)+lün (B-D), tegyé, mondasz, taníccsa, taníttya, egyeel (Á)+egyé or ögyé (B-C-CS-D-E), mész (Á-B-C-CS-E)+mensz (D), menek (Á-D)+megyek (?) (B-C-CS-E), e(l)pazut or epazat, rí (Á)+rien (B-C-CS-D-E), beszétem, mondanak, füröszti, mekhí (Á-C-CS-D)+mekhin (B-E), tesz, visz, vinnénk, evett, ivott, aluggyon (B-C-CS-D-E, and southern part of Á)+aluggyék (northern area of Á), aluggyak=(aluggyam Á partly), alszom+alszok (partly C-partly E), vannak, megy, elbódul (Á-CS)+elbolondul (B-C-D-E), szembogár, huny (Á-B-C-D-E)+hum (CS), vályog, nyeve, hajnalban, éjfélbe, pünkösdkor [at Pentecost], székhe, (Erzsiék)hö, -tó or -tú, tollas, csúszkál.

 

 

Core areas É-F-G-GY-H-I: búza, sása, rozs, kalász (É-F-GY)+fej (G-H-I), rozsda, üszök, búzavirág, pipacs, kosz (G-GY-H)+aranka (É-I)+pippan (F), bükköny, kukorica, levél, fej (G)+csíve (H-I)+cső (É-F-GY?), haja, tuskó (É-G-GY)+csutka (F-H-I), morzsol (OF mors; English morsel), bab, hüvely, buborka [abobora in Portuguese] (F-G-H-I)+uborka (É-GY), sóska, csalán+(csóvány É), gaz, buzogány, zsúp, kereszt (G-GY-H-I)+(körösztös É)+(hetes F), járomszög, járom, vállfa, zabla, puska, sípkarika+(agykarika É), agy, küllő, talpfa, oldal, szekér (É-F-G-GY)+kocsi (H-I), fogas (É-F-G-GY), csoport (F-G-H) [see csupor and gerencsér]+hant (F-G-GY), ekeló, vánkos, kormányvas, csipkebogyó (É-F-I)+hecsedli (G-GY-H)+(seggvakarcs H south), himpér, ribizli, egres (É-F-G-GY-I)+csipkeszöllö (H-I)+(piszke in part of GY), fürt (F-G-I)+fej (GY-H), kaccsa, macskaméz+(macska-gumi/szar/cukor/csiriz as well in GY [gomme in French, chirish in Kurdish, sherizi in Swahili], juha, hordás (G-GY-H-I)+takarodás (É-F), épít (F-G-GY-H-I)+épül (É-F), majter, szalufa [compare “szalu” with “sele-olu” as Polynesian “scissors”] (G-GY-H north)+ollófa (É)+olló (F), sárgerenda, kakasüllő (F-G-H)+kokasgerenda (GY)+hambalka (É), pallás, ragasztó (É-F-G) (ajtóragasztó also in G)+küszöp (GY-H north)+(ajtó)szárfa (H south-I), orgona+szelence (G-H-I all partly)+(tengeriboddza É), sárgarépa, vörösrépa (F-GY)+pirosrépa (H-I)+céklarépa (GY-H), mákhaj (É-F-G-GY)+guba (H-I)+(gubó G also), mákfej (É-GY)+guba (H-I)+gubó (G), tányérbél(virág) (É-F)+szotyolla (G), [perhaps from the English sundial?],  líp+(sonkó G), méhkas, méh, farka (É-F)+címere (G)+bukrétája (GY), krumpi+krumpli (H-I), petrezsirom (G-GY-H)+(peterzse in É, petrezselem in H-I), dorombol (G-H-I)+dudál (F)+(brugóz, muzsikál É), nyávog (É-F-GY-H-I)+(nyervog G), karmol (É-F-G-H-I)+(kapar GY), harap, liheg+(nyevel H), kölykezik (É-F-H-I)+ellik (G-GY), vonít (É-F-G-GY-I)+(h)uhúgat (GY)+tutú or baug [beugle in French] (H), nősténykutya (É-F-GY)+emsekutya (G)+emse (H), emse (G-GY-H)+nyőstin (É-F), malacozik (É-F-H-I)+ellik (G-GY-H12), görög, kanász, disznócsorda+(fóka or csorda, both in H), bak, gida, hajszás (F-G-GY-H-I)+(belső in É), csás (F-G-GY-H-I)+késztűső (É), csökönyös (G-H)+rosszhúzó (F)+húgyos (É), tinó, üsző, ellik (G-GY-H)+csikózik (É-F), csülök+(csukló H partly), (piros)pej+(only pej in H), csődör (F-G-GY)+(monyas H south), cserdít (G-GY-I)+pattant (É-F)+durrant (H), határ, akó (G-GY-H)+(kollát or kerítés in É), disznóól (É-F-G-GY-I)+hidas (H), hímkacsa (É-F)+kankácsa (G-GY)+karréce (G-H), kacsa (É-F-G-GY)+réce (H-I), cicerél (G-GY-H)+herél  (É-F), liba (G)+kisliba (GY)+lutfi (É), herél (Ë-F)+cicerél (?) (G-GY-H-I?), baromfi, galambház+(tubaház H south) [see dove-house in English], főszeggyük, kámvo, (kút)gém+sujtó (É-F), deszkakerítés (G-Gy-H-I)+palánk [plank in English] (É-F), létra [ladder in English] (G-GY)+lajtorgya (F)+lajtergya (H), talicska, kaszakő (É-F-G-H-I)+köszörükő (GY), kaszakarika (É-F-H-I)+örv (G-GY), nagyfejsze (É-G-GY-H-I)+öregfejsze (F), (kis)balta (É-GY-H-I)+kisfejsze (G)+valaska or hókony (F), sulyok (G-GY-H-I)+patélló (É-F), pitli (G-H)+fejőedény? (F-GY-I?)+zsájtár (É), kanna (H)+öntözőkanna (É), vendő (G-GY-H)+vindü (F)+döböny (É), pohár, késsel, kanál, szénvonó (F-G-GY-I)+pörnyehúzó [see burn in English] (H south)+szikrahúzó (É), parázs (F-G-GY-H)+szikra (É), piszkavas?+piszkálóvas (H), kemence, kicsavarja, öblíti (F-G-GY-H-I)+hibájja or hibázza (É), elbontja, angi(n)+-ciha (É-G-GY-H-I)+alsóhuzat (F), vánkos, trózsák [straw sack in English] (É-F eastern-GY-H south)+szalmazsák (F west-G-H north-I), cylinder [cylinder in English] (É-F-G-GY), ciha, pad, kisszék+gyalokszék (H), vaklik (or vakluk) (G-GY-H)+vakablak (É+F partly)+(kubli in parts of F), szoba, talál, okád, ver, köhög, csámcsog, danul+danú, nevet, nyújtózkodik, lúdtalpú, turcsi (GY-H)+tukacs (É)+tukmacs (F)+pisze+ tutyma (both G), borsókás (F)+lúdbőrös (É)+libabőrös (?) (in some of the rest), mesztelen, szeplős, genny+csúnyaság (G-H)+rúccság (GY), buckó (F-G-GY)+bütyök (É)+krumpli (H), sömötyü (G-GY)+csümöcsing (F)+szemöccség (H)+tyúksegg (É), pattanás+buborcsek (H), anyajel+anyajegy (H), comb, íz, gyűrüsujj (É-F-H)+neve(le)tlenujj (G-GY), hüvelykujj (G-GY-H-I)+öregujj (É-F), tenyér, ököl, izom, köldök, oldalborda, ádámcsutka, szája széle, íny, tejfog (É-F-G)+csöcsfog (GY-H), halánték, viselős (É-F parts-GY-H)+állapotos or várandós (G, parts of F), napam+anyósom (parts of G and traces in GY), ipam+apósom (parts of G and traces in GY), lakodalom+menyegző (É), kézfogó+(eljegyzés in parts of G and H), gyerek, öregapám (F-G-H)+öregpapa (GY)+(öregatya or öregapa É), nagyanya+(nyanya or szüle in G), mamusz (G-GY)+mamuszka (F)+papucs (É), szoknya, kézelő+lénző or linző [lienzo in Spanish?] (H)+(üngmajc in parts of GY), ingnyak, préshurka (É-F)+sajt (G)+szalámi [like in Italian or English] (GY)+vátli or svártli [German schwarz?] (H)+(prézburst in half of É, of German origin), sonka, tepertő or töpörtyű (É-F-H)+csörge (G)+pörc (GY), böllér (É-GY-H)+disznóölő (F-G), mecc (F-G), gyürke (F-G-GY-H)+forradás (É), lángos, sárgája, süttojás, köpül, író, krumplinudli (?)+istenbilléje (F), sifli (É-F)+kockatészta (G-GY-I?), csíkmák (É-F)+metélt (G-GY-H), fánk (G-GY-H-I)+siska (É-F), lekvár, befőtt, egyenes+igenyös (É-F), hozzánk, nékü (É-F-GY)+nékün (G-H-I), kiső, beső, kivül, túsó, főső, sehun, itthon, szomjas (É-F-GY-H-I)+szomgyas (G), öccö(r), kukac (G-GY-H-I)+nyűv (É)+nyű (F), krumplikukac (G-H)+ krumplinyű (F)+pata GY+(patakukac parts of G)+(prondló or kukac É), budabácsi (É-F-G)+katicabogár (É-H)+(katuska parts of  G), bodobács (É-F-G-I)+vörösbugár (GY)+jóidőbogár or káposztapoloska (H), pille (G-GY-H)+leppentyű (F)+lepencs (É), szecsku (É-F)+szöcske (?) (G-GY-H), szitakötő, bögő (G-GY)+bögü (F)+bögöl (É)+bagócs (F), légy, kígyó, békanyál (G-GY-H-I)+ződhínár (F)+(békalepedő or ökörnyál É), pióca, ebihal+(cethal or ebihal É), bőregér (G-GY-H)+szárnyasegér (F), (...)disznó+(...kutya in part of F; the dots mean that the component varies), csóka+vargyu (both in G), csóka (F), mókus, gyík, vakondok+(pucok part of H), göncöl-, tejút, búbospacsirta (É-F-G-H)+pipiske (F), ...babuka (F-H)+babutka (GY), patkány, egér, kitisztul, szemetel (G east-H south)+szitál? (F-G west-GY), zörög, föjhő (G-Gy-H-I)+fölhő (É), dér, lék, pocsóta (F parts-G-GY)+tócsa (É-F partly-H), akszik (G-GY-H)+alkuszik (É-F-I), térbekül (É-F)+térdel (?) (G-GY-I)+térbetül (H), bál, csigér/csenger, faz(e/i)kas, fapin(n)a (É partly-F-GY)+vetél(l)ő (G partly-Gy partly)+(picsafa G partly)+(csónak É mostly), szüvőszék (G-GY-H), gombolyító, motolla, rokka+(kecskerokka H north, ropka in É), csepü [étoupe in French] (É-F)+(kóc H), kender [chanvre in French] (É-H)+szála (GY-H)+szálakender (G), gerebenyöz (G-GY-H), tiló, velö, folyik, folyó (G-GY-H-I)+foló (É-F), lik (F-G-H-I)+(luk GY), kiráj/király (G-GY-H-I)+királ (É-F), műhely, fuvar, kapkod, fogdoz, bököd (F-G)+lököd (GY-H-I), hallja, írjon, esik, rakj, fe/fő, tónám, ütötte, megjavut, meghat, kiát, nyomjuk, át-, pipál, gondolkodik, jel-/gyel-, ó(l)vasó, kötnénk, nézté, lőné, lő+(lül, lüll or löll in GY), tegyé, mondasz, taníccsa, taníttya, egyé/ögyé, mész, megyek+(mögyök É), e(l)pazut or epazat+ (e(l)pazaro(l)t in GY),  rí+rill+rín, beszétem, mondanak (G-GY-H-I)+monnak (É-F), füröszti, mekhill (F-G-GY)+(mekhí É-I), tesz, visz, vinnénk, evett, ivott, aluggyon, aluggyak, alszok, vannak, megy (É-F-G-GY-partly H)+mén (partly H-I), elbódul (F-G-H)+eltéved (É-GY-I), szembogár+(szembáb É), huny+(kum partly H), vályog (G-GY-H-I)+mór (É-F), nyeve, hajnalban, éjfélkor (É-F-G-Gy partly-H south)+éjfélbe (Gy partly-H north-I), pünkösdkor, székhe, Erzsiékhö, -tó or -tú, tollas, csúszkál (G-GY-H-I)+csuszkorál (É-F). 

 

 

Core areas J-K: búza, sása (J-K north)+levele (K south), rozs, fej (J-K)+kalász (K), rozsda, üszök, búzavirág, pipók or pippancs or patics, kosz (K+J)+ri (K southeast), bükköny, kukorica, levél, fej, haja, csuma or csuta (K), morzsol (K), borsó, hüvely, buborka, sóska, csalán, gaz, buzogány, zsúp, kereszt, …?, járom, vállfa, zablavas, puska, sípkarika, agy, küllő, talpfa, oldal, kocsi, fogas+borona, hant, ekeló, vánkos, kormánydeszka+kormánytábla, seggvakaró+bicske, himpér, ribizli, egres+tüskeszőlő, fej, kaccsa, enyv, ziha, takarullás+takarodás+ búza/gabona-hordás, épít (K north-J)+épül (K south), majter, szalufa, sárgerenda (North.)+vórógerenda (in Southern part), kokasüllő, pallás, ajtószárfa, szelence (north)+orgona (S.W.), sárgarépa, pirosrépa+vörösrépa, guba+mák héja, guba+búga (South), szotyola+tányérvirág, lép, méhkas, méh, cimöre+cirma+koncérgya, krumpli+(kolompér in Southern part), petrezsirom, muzsikál, nyávog, körmöz, harap, lehöl+zihál, kölykezik, tutul, emsekutya+nőstény+kancakutya (Southern part), göbe, malacozik, görög, kanász, fóka, bak, gida, hajszás, csás, csökönyös, tinó, üsző, vemhezik (North)+csikózik (South), nyígér+nyügér+(csukló in North), pej, monyas, durrant, mező, kerítés, hidas, bakréce, réce, gőgéröz+heréll+(bubul J), zsiba+(riba Southern part), cicerél+(herebel in Southeastern part, bubul in J), baromfi, galambház, főszeggyük (North)+ kivájjuk+kiájjuk+kiájunk (all South), kútkáva, (kút)gém, deszkakerítés, lajtergya, talicska, kaszakő, kaszakarika, nagyfejsze, (kis)balta, lapicka+(mosó)súk, fejőkanna+sáfó, kanna, véndő, pohár, késsel, kalány, szénvonó, parázs, sirhakni+sirhakli, kemence, kifacsarja, öblögeti, fölbontja (K North)+megveti (K central part)+ lebonti (K South and J), angi(n)+-ciha, vánkos, szómapárna (South)+szalmazsák (North and J), cilinder, ciha, pad, kisszék+gyalokszék, vaklik (north)+vakablak (K central and J)+fíke or fűke (both south), szoba, talál, okád, dobog+ver, köhög, csámcsog, dalol (south)+ danul+danú (north, middle), nevet, nyújtózkodik, lúdtalpú, turcsi, borsós, mesztelen, szeplős, csúnyaság, krumpli, szemöccség (K North)+fököny (K South)+fökin (J), pattanás, anyagyel (K North and J)+jegy (south), comb, íz, neve(le)tlenujj, hüvelykujj, tenyér, ököl, izom, köldök, oldalborda, ádán csutka [Adan in Spanish]+ádámgombja [related to knob in English], szája széle, íny, csöcsfog (K North)+tejfog (K South), halánték, viselős, napam, ipam, lakodalom, kézfogó+eljegyzés, (férfi)gyerek, öregapám, mama+ öreganyám+ szülém, tutyi, szoknya, kézelő, ingnyak, svartli, sonka, pörc, kaszap+böllér [perhaps from kasap in Turkish and bull in English?], mecc, gyürke, lángos, sárgája, süttojás (K North)+kajdena or kajdina (K South), köpül, író, istenpöcse, kockatészta, metélt, fánk, lekvár, dunct+duncos [from Dienst in German], egyenes, hozzánk, nékün, kiső, beső, kívü, túsó, főső, sehun, itthon, szomgyus, öccö(r), kukac, pocokkkukac+krumplikukac, petikebogár+péterke, bodobáncs+suszterbogár, pille, szöcske, szitakötö, bangócs+dangócs+ dongó, bogár (north and J)+légy (south), kígyó, békanyál, pióca, ebihal+(bögyehal), bőregér, (tüskés)disznó+(tüskés)borz (K-J), kánya, kánya [black bird in Urdu/Hindi], mókus, gyík, vakondok+pucok (K Southwestern part and J), göncöl-, tejút, búbospacsirta, (fostos)bugybóka, patkány+(herőc in the eastern 2-3 villages of K), egér, kiviccsanik+kitisztul+(kiviccsan in J), szitál?, dörög, fölhő, dér, lék, pocséta, alkuszik, térdel?+ térbetül (J), bál, csigér/csenger, (varies), hajó+vetélö, szüjőszék (K North)+szüjőfa (K South), gombolyító, áspa, rokka (K Northern and main part)+pörgő (K South), kóc+csöppü, szála, gerebenez (?), tiló, velő, folik+fojik, folyó, lik, királ (south and J)+ kiráj/király (K North), műhel (K South)+ műhely (K North), fuvar, kapkod, fogdoz (northern half)+fogdos (south), lököd, hallja, írjon, esik, rakj, fe/fő, tónám, ütötte, megjavut, meghat, kátt (western half)+kiát (eastern), nyomjuk, át-, pipál, gondolkodik, jel-/gyel-, ó(l)vasó, kötnénk, nézté, löné, lün+lüj, tegyé, mondó, taníccsa, taníttya, egyé/ögyé, mész, megyek, e(l)pazut or epazat, rén, beszétem, mondanak, füröszti, mekhill (K Western part)+ mekhí (K Eastern), tesz, visz, vinnénk, evett, ivott, aluggyon, aluggyak, alszok, vannak, megy, elbódul+eltéved, szembogár, kum (K Southern, the majority)+hum (K Northern and J), vályog, nyeve, hajnalban, éjfélkor, pünkösdkor, székhe, Erzsiékhö, -tó or -tú, tollas, csúszkál.

 

 

Core areas L-Y: búza, lapija, rozs, fej, rogya, üszök, buzavirag, pipacs, fecskefonal+aranka (Y)+gyűrűfű+csir, bükköny, töröbuza or terebuza, lapi, cső, bajusza (Y)+haja (L), csusza (Y)+csutka (L), fejt, faszulyka, hüvely, uborka+ugorka, sósdi, csihán, burján, botyikó+buzogány, zsúp, kalongya or félkalongya, járompáca, járom, vállfa, zabla, puska, agykarika, kerékfő+tőke+butykó, fentő, fal, lajtorja [ridelleinFrench], szekér, borona, gaj+gal, (eke)kabala [to carry the plow, see the Spanish “caballo”], párna [parno in Sanskrit] kormányvas, seggvakaró, málna, rozsincsén+borfüge+pirosszöllő (Y), egres+füge+szőrösfüge, gerezd, ina, macskaméz, juha, hordás, épít+csál, majter+kulimász [perhaps the root is “cal” that is lime in Spanish], szarufa, szélkoszorú+koszorufa+atyfa, macskafa+kakasülő, hi(j)u+hija+hid+hib+ hászija, szemöldök+béllés+(dincs)tok, boroszlán+borusnyán, murok, cékla+verescékla, mákhiju, (unknown), napraforgó, lép, kas+kosár, méh, virágja, pityóka, petrezselyem+peterzsejem, dorombol+morrog, nyávog, karmol, mar, lehel, kölykezik, baunkol+orgonál, nősténykutya, göje, malacozik, búgik, disznópásztor, disznócsorda, cáp, kecskeolló, hódzbali+hízbali, csás, fortéjos+kutyás+szokásos, tulak+tinó, tinó+ünő, csitkó(dd)zik, csukló+sikla+csikló, (piros)pej, monyas+mén+ménló, harsant+rittyent+csattint, mező, kerítés+kifutó+pitvar, pajta, gácsér+(in Y21 & 22) ganci [see ganso in Spanish, probably from Gothic], réce+ruca, ganároz, pipe+pípecske, benderészik+benderéz, majorság, galambház+galambúgó, kiássuk, gárgya, kompona+géim, deszkakert, lajtorja+rajtoja, taricska+rapszekér+raptajiga+darabonca, fénkő, kaszakarika, nagyfejsze, (kis)balta, sulyok, sétár, öntöző, bödön+bádog+plé, csipor (see “xicara”in Portuguese)+kanna, késvel, kalán, szénvonó, szén, horog+(kankó in Y), kemence, kifacsarja, kitisztája+kirázza, megveti, anginét+angi(n), párna [see in Sanskrit again], szalmazsák+surdé+dusza, lámpaüveg, haj, pad, fejőszék, póc, ház, kap, okádik+okád+hány, ver, hurut, csámcsog, énekel, kacag, nyújtózkodik, telitalpú, tonka [similar to B21-22 in Zala county], lúdbőrös, csóré+csurdéi, szeplős, méreg, bog, sümölcs+fekön, szökés, anyajegy, tag, íz, neve(le)tlenujj+gyürüsujj, hüvelykujj, tenyér, kujak, béka+izom, köldök, oldalborda, ádámalma, szája préme+buzája [boca in Spanish]+buddzája (L)+habarója (L), fokhús, tejfog+bornyu fog [milk tooth, perhaps related to the English verb born?], vakszem, terhes [see träch(t)ig in German]+viselős+boldog-állapotos, anyósom, apósom, lakodalom, lyánkérés+leánykérés, fiju+gyermek+fiúgyermek+ legényke, tata+tati+(öreg)apó, nanyó+nannya, papucs, rokoja, kézelő+(brecar in L16, perhaps related to the Spanish brazo), gallér [see English and Spanish], disznófősajt, sonka, tepertő or töpörtyű, mészáros [German Messer=knife,Slavic mjaso=meat), szel+sirít, ducc, lepény+leblepény+ sóslepény, sárgája, rá(n)totta, kiver+kever, vértej, bögyörő, laska, laska, pánkó [pan in Spanish, bun in English), íz, kompót, egyenes, nálunk, nékül, kiső, beső, küjel, túsó, föső, sut+suhutt+suhult (all Y), itthon, szonnyas, ötször or öccö(r)+öt vessen+öt versen, nyű, csimasz, katicabogár, szabóbogár+budobogár+katonabogár+ bárám-bogárka, pillangó, sáska, szitakötö, bandár, légy, kígyó, békanyál, vérszipó, kutyahal+ békacimpó, bőrmadár+denevér+(hájlopó), (...)disznó, varjú, holló+csóka, evet, gyík, patka+ höncsök (L)+(kuza+vakoncs+vakkancs+vakoncsok), göncör-+göncöl-, hadak útja, kontyos-madár, büdösbanka, pocegér+patkám(féreg)+ pocok (all Y)+guzgány (L), féreg, kitisztul, szitál+harmatozik, dörög+görget+mennydörög (Y15 and 22, L13), felleg [see Dutch wolk] (Eastern half)+felhő (Western half), hóharmat, lék+veik (Northeastern part), pocsoja, alkuszik, térgyepel+térgyel, bál, csigér/csenger, fazakas, vetéllő, osztováta, takerőlevél, motolla, fonókerék, csepü, (varies), léhel, vonogalo+vonótiló+szépittő+ apróló+tiló, verő, folyik, folyó, lik [leak or hole in English], kiráj/király, műhely, fuvar, kapkod, fogdos, lökdös, hallja, írjon, es+ess, rakj, fel/föl, tojnám, ütte, megjavult, meghat, kiát, nyomjuk, átal-, pipál, gondolkozik, jegy-, olvacc+olvas’sz+olvasol, kötnők, néztél, lőné, lő, tegyé+tegyél, mondasz, taníccsa, taníttya, egyél, mensz, menyek, e(l)pazaro(l)t, (unknown), beszétem+beszéltem, monnak, füröszti, hivu+hí, teszen, viszen, vinnők, ett, ivott, aluggyék+aluggyon, aluggyam, alszom+ alszok, vadnak, menyen, elvesz(tödik) (Y)+elbolondul (L), szemfény (Y)+ szemvilág (L), huny, vályog, nyelve, hajnalban, éjfélkor, pünkösdbe, székhez, Erzsiékhö, -tól and -túl, tollas, isánkodik+iszánkodik.

 

 

Core area M: tisztabuza, sása, rozs, (varies), rozsda, üszök, buzavirág, pipacs, aranka, bükköny, kukorica, levél, csév+csív+cső, bajusza, csutka, morzsol, bab, hüvely, uborka, sóska, csalán, gaz, buzogány, zsúp, csomó, járomszög, járom, vállfa, zabla, puska, agykarika, agy, küllő, talpfa, oldal, kocsi, fogas, göröngy+göröncs [ground in English], ekeló, vánkos, kormányvas, csipkebogyó, málna, ribizli, piszke+büszke, fürt, bajusza, enyv+(macskaméz), juha, hordás+rakodás+hordóckodás, épít, majter, horokfa, sárgerenda+majorpang (Eastern part), kakasüllő, pallás, ajtófél+ajtókép (M3, 17)+ajtószárfa (M22, 23), orgona, sárgarépa, céklarépa, mákhaj, gumó+gubó+mákfej, tányérrózsa+tányérbél+tányérica+tutyella+napraforgó, sejt, méhkas, méhecske, farka+zabja+ (kalássza+bokrétaja+üstöke), krumpli, petrezselyem, muzsikál+dudáll+dorombol+(duruzsol), nyervog, kapar+karmol, harap, liheg, ellik, vonít, nősténykutya, nyőstén+koca, ellik, görög+görget+(búgódik), kanász, csürhe, bak, gida, hajszás, csás, csökönyös, tinó, üsző, ellik, csüg, pej, csődör, cserdít, határ+(főd), akol+akó+(porzó), disznóól, gádzsér+(bakkácsa+hímkácsa), kacsa, tojózik+gázol+hergel+tojószkodik, kisliba, hergel+hág+(tojózik+gázol), baromfi, galambház, főszöggyük, kútrovás, (kút)gém, deszkakerítés, létra+(lajtorja), talicska, kaszakő, örv, nagyfejsze, (kis)balta, sujok+mosófa, zsajtár+fejő, locsoló, vendő+döböny+bödöny, bögre+(göbre), késsel, kanál, pörnyehuzó+ szémvonyó, parázs, piszkavas, kemence, sparhelt+sporhelt [from German], kicsavarja, öblíti+ tisztázza, elbontja+elágyaz+megveti, ciha, vánkus, trózsák, lámpaüveg+(mécsüveg in K23, east of Mohács), haj (to the East of the Kalocsa-Drégelypalánk line)+ciha (West of that line), pad, kisszék, vakablak, ház, talál, okád, ver, köhög, csámcsog+csáncsog, dalol+ danul+danú, nevet, nyújtózkodik, lúdtalpú, pisze (and other forms), lúdbőrös+libabőrös, mesztelen, szeplős, genny+csúnyaság, bütyök, szemölcs, pattanás, anyajegy, comb, íz, neve(le)tlenujj, hüvelykujj, tenyér, ököl, malac(ka), köldök, oldalborda, ádámcsutka, szája széle, íny, tejfog, halánték+ vakszem (in the Eastern part), terhes+vastag+állapotos+várandós+viselős, napam, ipam, lakodalom, kézfogó, gyerek, natypapa+tatám+atyám, nagymama+szülike, mamusz, szoknya, kézelő, ingnyak, sajt, sonka, tepertő or töpörtyű, böllér, vág, gyürke, lángos, sárgája, rá(n)totta, köpül, író, núdli [noodle in English], kockatészta, metélt tészta, fánk, lekvár, befőtt, igenyös, hozzánk, nékü, kiső, beső, kívü, túsó, főső, sehun, itthon, szomjas, öccö(r), kukac, (pata)kukac+ krumplikukac, katalina+katalin+(istenkatikája+petikebugár/ka), pirosbogár+káposztarágó bogár, etc., pille, szöcskö, szitakötö, bögö+bögöj, légy, kígyó, békanyál, pióca, ebihal+kutyahal, bőregér, (sin)disznó, vargyú+varnyú, varnyú+varjú, mókus, gyík, vakondok+pucok (Western part), göncöl-, tejút+hadak útja, pipiske, büdösbanka+szarbabutyka+(búbos banka), patkány, egér, kitisztul?+kiderül?+kividul?, szitál?, zeng+(zörög in Northwestern part), föjhő, dér, lék, pocsoja, alkuszik, (varies), bál, csigér/csenger, fazekas+gölöncsér (Southwestern part), fapina+(csónak+hajó+near Esztergom at M5 and 14 the form “ladik” is Slavic, from lodka), szüvőszék, gombolyító, motolla, (pergö)rokka+ropka, kóc, szála+kender+szálakender, gerebenyöz, tiló, velő, folyik, folyó, luk, kiráj/király, műhely, fuhar+(fuvar), kapkod, fogdos, lökdös, hallja, írjon, esik, rakj, fe/fő, tónám, ütötte, megjavut, meghat, kiát, nyomjuk, át-, pipál, gondolkozik, jel-/gyel- (western)+jegy- (eastern), ó(l)vasó, kötnénk, nézté, lőné, lő (eastern)+lül(l)+löll (both western), tegyé, mondasz, taníccsa, taníttya, egyé/ögyé, mész, mék, e(l)pazaro(l)t, ril(l), beszétem, mondanak, fürdeti, mekhill (Western part)+ mekhí (Eastern part), tesz, visz, vinnénk, evett, ivott, aluggyon, aluggyak, alszok, vannak, mén, eltéved, szembogár, hum+ huny, vályog, nyeve (Western part)+nyelve (Eastern part), hajnalban, éjfélkó, pünkösdkor, székhe, Erzsiékhö, -tó or -tú, tollas, csúszkál.

 

 

Core areas N-NY-Q: búza, sása, rozs (N-NY)+gabona (Q), kalász (Q), rozsda, üszök, buzavirag, pipacs, aranka, bükköny, tengeri, levél, csö, selyme (Q)+haja (N), csutka, morzsol (N-NY)+hánt (Q), paszuj (N-Q), cső (N)+hüvely (Q), ugorka (N-Q)+ iborka (NY), sóska, csilánt, dudva, buzogány, zsúf, kereszt, járomszög, járom, vállfa, zabla, puska, agykarika, agy, küllő, talpfa, oldal, szekér, borona, göröncs+göröngy+göringy [ground in English], ekeló, vánkos, kormányvas, csipkebogyó+(rózsa)bogyó+seggvakarcs (Q), málna, ribizli, pöszméte (N)+ köszméte (Q)+büszke (NY), fürt, bajusza, enyv or enyő (N)+mizga+kouduscsipa (both Q), ju, hordás, épít, majter+cement (Q), szarufa, …?, kakasüllő, pad+pallás (N), ajtófél, orgona, sárgarépa+(pirosrépa N), cékla, buga (Q)+mákbugóu (N)+gubó (N-NY), gubó (N-NY)+mágbuga (Q), uszu+napraforgó, líp, méhkas, dongó (N-Q), zabja, kolompír (N-Q)+(kompeir NY), petrezselyem,  dorombol (Q)+muzsikál or dörmög (N), nyávog, karmol, harap, liheg, fijal+fijaddzik, vonít+(h)újogat, nősténykutya (N)+szuka (Q), koca, fijal, rühet [“est en rut” in French], csürhés (N)+kondás (Q), csürhe, bak, gida, hajszás, csás (gauche in French)+kezes (Q), csökönyös, tinó, üsző, ellik, csüg, pej, csödör, kongat (N)+cserget or csergit (Q), határ+mező, kollát (N)+karám+akol (Q), disznóól, gácsér or gácsír, ruca (N)+kacsa (Q), gúnárzik, kisliba, petél or pitél, aprójószág, galambház (N)+tubus+galamdúc (both Q), kiszeggyük (?), kútkáva, (kút)gém, deszkakerítés, rajtoja (N)+láptó (Q), tajicska (N)+furik (Q), fenkü or fénkü, örv, nagyfejsze, (kis)balta, sulyok, fejő (N)+rocska (Q), kanna (?), bodon, csupor, késsel, kanál, szénvonó, parázs, tüzpiszkálló, kemence, kicsavarja, öblíti, megveti, angi(n)+-ciha, párna, surgye(i), lámpaüveg, haj, pad (N)+lóca (Q), gyalokszék (N)+kisszék (?) (Q), vakablak (N)+vakjuk (Q), ház, lel, okád, ver (N)+dobog (Q), köhög, csáncsog (N) [perhaps from pig, “chancho” in Spanish]+csámcsog (Q), danul+danú, kacag, nyújtózkodik, lúdtalpú, pisze (?), libabőrös, mesztelen, szeplős, genny, bütyök, szemölcs, pattanás, anyajegy, comb, íz, neve(le)tlenujj, hüvelykujj, tenyér, ököl, malac(ka), köldök, oldalborda, ádámcsutka, szája széle, íny, tejfog+csikófog (part of N), vakszem (N)+halánték (Q), viselős (N)+állapotos (Q), napam, ipam, lakodalom, kézfogó, fijú, nagyapám, nagyanya (N)+nagyanyám (Q), papucs, szoknya, kézelő, ingnyak, sajt, sódar [perhaps shoulder of the pig, English] (Q)+sonka (Q), tepertő or töpörtyü, hentes, vág, dúc, lángos, székje or szíkje, rá(n)totta, köpül, író, krumplinúdli, kockatészta, laska, fánk, lekvár, befőtt, egyenes, hozzánk (N)+nálunk (Q), nékül, kilső, belső, kivvel, túlsó, felső, sehun, itthon, szomjas, öccö(r), pondró [see the word “worm” in the languages of India], pondró+csókaféreg+pajor, szűszkata+fűszkata+katicabogár+katibogár, pirosbogár, pillangó (N)+lepke (Q), szöcske (Q)+tücsök (N parts), szitakötő, pécsik or pőcsik, légy, kígyó, békanyál, nadály [see nadder in Old English], ephal (N)+cigá(n)hal (Q), szárnyasegér, ...kutya, …?, varnyú (N), mókus, gyík, vakondok, göncöl- or göncör-, tejút, búbos pacsirta (N)+pipiske (Q), szarbanka+búbos banka (N), poc (N)+patkány (Q), egér, kitisztul, ködöl, zeng, felleg, dér, lék, tócsa (?), eggyezik (N)+alkuszik (Q), térdel (?) (N)+térgyepel (Q), bál, csigér/csenger (N)+lőre (Q), faz(e/i)kas, vetéllő, szövöü+szövőszék, gombolyító, motolla, kerekesrokka, csepü, fejekender, gereböl, törő (N)+tiló (Q), velő, folyik, folyó, juk, kiráj/király, műhely, fuhar, kapkod, fogdos, lökdös, hallja, írjon, esik, rakjál, fel/föl, tolnám, ütötte, megjavult, meghalt, kiát, nyomjuk, át-, pipál, gondolkozik, jegy-, o(l)vasol, kötnénk, néztél, lőnél, lő, tegyél, mondol, taníccsa, taníttya, egyél, mész, megyek, e(l)pazaro(l)t, rí, beszéltem, mondanak, füröszti (N)+fürdeti (Q), mekhí, tesz (N)+teszen (Q), visz (N)+viszen (Q), vinnénk, evett (N)+ett (Q), ivott, aluggyon, aluggyak, alszok, vannak, megyen, eltéved, szemvilág, huny, vályog, nyelve, hajnalban, éjfélbe, pünkösdkor, székhe, Erzsiék, -tól or -túl, tollas, iszankodik (N)+síkárkózik (Q).

 

 

Core areas O-Ó-Ö-P: búza (Ó-Ö-P)+tisztabúza (O), sása, gabona, kalász (O-P), rozsda, üszök, búzavirág, vadmak+pipacs, aranka, bükköny, kukorica, levél+lapu (Ó), cső, bojtja (O-Ó)+haja (Ö-P), csutka, morzsol, bab, hüvely, iborka, sóska, csenál, dudva, buzogány, zsúp, kereszt, járomszög, járom, vállfa, zabla, puska, agykarika, agy, küllő, talpfa, oldal, szekér, borona, göröngy (?), ekeló, vánkos, kormányvas, csipke (O-Ó)+csipkebogyó (Ö-P), málna, ribizli, büszke+köszméte, fürt, bajusza, csipa+mézga, juha, hordás, épít, majter+cement, szarufa, koszorúgerenda (?)+fojó(gerenda) (Ö), kakasüllő, pad, ajtófél, orgona, sárgarépa, cékla, mákhaj, mákfej, makuka+tányérvirág+napraforgó, sonkoly, köpü, méhecske+méh, zabja, kompér, petrezselyem, brúgol+muzsikál, nyávog+majúkol (O), csikar (O-Ó)+mar [muerde in Spanish] (Ö-P), harap, liheg, fiadz(z)ik+fi(j)al, vonít, kocakutya+nősténykutya+koca, koca, fiadz(z)ik+fi(j)al, búgik, kanász, nyáj, bak, gida, hajszás+belső (O), csás (Ö-P)+cselös (O)+kezes (Ó), csökönyös (O-P)+makrancos (Ó)+makacs (Ö), tinó, üsző(tinó), ellik, csürök+csülök (O), pej, csödör, cserdít (O-Ó)+pattant (Ö-P), határ (O-Ó)+mező (Ó-Ö-P), karám, disznóól (Ó-Ö-P)+hidas (O), gúnárkacsa, kacsa, gúnárzik (Ó-Ö-P)+birbitél (O), kisliba, tojószkodik (Ó-Ö-P), aprólék, galambos (O)+galambház (Ö-P)+dúc (Ó), kiássuk, rováték+kútkáva, (kút)gém, deszkakerítés (O-P)+palánk (Ó-Ö), rétlya (O)+láptó (Ö-P)+létra (Ó), talicska (O)+furik (Ó-Ö-P), fén, kaszakarika, nagyfejsze, (kis)balta, sulyok, zsétár, locsoló kupa [cup in English] (O)+öntöző (Ó-Ö), kupa (O)+kanna [can in English] (Ó), bádog (O), késsel, kana (O)+kanál (Ó-Ö-P), szénvonó, zsarát(nok) (O)+parázs (Ó-P), tűzpiszkálló (O)+kutács (Ó-Ö-P), kemence [see in Slavic], kicsavarja, öblíti, elvackol (O)+megveti (Ó-Ö), turbuk, fejel (O)+vánkos (Ó)+párna (Ö-P), szalmazsák, lámpaüveg, haj, lóca, kisszék, vakablak, ház, tanál (O-P)+lel (Ó-Ö), okád, dobog+ver, köhög, csámcsog, danul+danú, nevet, huzakszik (O)+nyújtózkodik (Ó-Ö-P), lúdtalpú, pisze (?), libabőrös (O-Ö-P)+lúthúsos (Ó), mesztelen (O)+csupasz (Ó-Ö-P), szeplős, genny, bütyök, tyúksegg, pattanás, anyajegy, comb+(bonc O partly), perc [like parts in English] (O)+íz (Ó-Ö-P), gyűrüsujj, nagyujj, tereny, ököl, izom, púp, oldalborda, ádámcsutka, szája széle, íny, tejfog+(csikófog in most of O), vakszem, viselős, anyósom (O)+anyokom (Ö-P), apósom (O)+apjokom (Ö-P), lakodalom, kézfogó, gyerek (O)+fiú (?) (Ó-Ö-P), nagyapa, nagyanya, mamusz (O)+papucs (Ó), szoknya, kézelő, ingnyak, sajt, sonka (O-Ö-P)+sódar (Ó), tepertő or töpörtyű, pintér (O)+hentes (Ó-Ö-P), szel (Ö) and other forms, domó, lángos, széke (O)+sárgája (Ó-Ö-P), rá(n)totta, köpül, író, krumplinúdli, sifli (O)+lecske (Ö-P), csik (O)+metélke (Ó-Ö), pampucka or pampuska (O-Ó)+kröpli (Ö), lekvár, befőtt, egyenes, nálunk, nékü (O)+nékül (Ó-Ö), kilső, belső, kivvel, túsó (O)+túlsó (Ó-Ö-P), felső, sehun (O)+sehol (Ó-Ö-P), itthon+ithol (Ó-Ö), szomjas, öccö(r), pondré (O)+pondró (Ó-Ö-P), pajod+(pondró P), katóka (O)+ (istenkebogárka P), verőkötő (O)+istenketehene [see the Slavic meaning “Little God’s cow”] (Ó)+(tarkapoloska P), lipe (O)+lepke (Ó-Ö-P), kabóca+bagóca+(lovacska P), szitakötő, bögöly (O)+dandár (Ó), légy, kígyó, békanyál, pióca, kutyahal, bőregér (O)+denevér, (...)kutya+ (...)disznó, (...)varnyú, varnyú, mókus, gyík, vakondok, göncöl-, tejút, pipiske, búbos banka (O)+büdösbanka (Ó-Ö-P), patkány, egér, kiderül (O)+kitisztul (Ó-Ö), lajhál or lajhog (O)+permetezik (Ó), zeng, felyhő (O)+burolás (O)+borúlás (Ó)+borúlat (Ö), dér, lék, pocsolya, alkuszik, térgyepel (Ó-Ö-P), báld (O)+bál, csigér/csenger (O)+lőre, fazekas or fazikas [potter in English], vetél(l)ő, szatva, gombolyító (O+Ö)+baklevel (Ó-P), motolla, kerekesguzsaly, csepü, feje+feji, csinál (O-Ó)+ öcsel+ecsel (Ö-P), tiló, velő, folyik, folyó, lyuk (O)+juk (Ó-Ö-P), kiráj/király, műhely, fuvar, kapkod (O-Ó)+kabdos (Ö-P), fogdos, lökdös, hallja, írjon, esik, rakj (O)+rakjál (Ó-Ö-P), fel/föl, tolnám, ütte (O)+ütötte, megjavut (O)+megjavult, meghat (O)+meghalt, kiát, nyomuk (O)+nyomjuk, át-, pipázik, gondolkozik, jegy-, o(l)vasol, kötnénk, nézté (O)+néztél, lőné (O)+lőnél, lő, tegyé (O-Ö)+tegyél (Ó-P), mondasz (O-Ö)+mondol (Ó-P), taníjja, taníttya (O)+taníjja (Ó)+taníti (Ö), egyé/ögyé (O)+ egyél (Ó-Ö-P), mész, megyek, e(l)pazaro(l)t, rí, beszétem (O)+beszéltem, mondanak, fürdeti (O-Ó)+füröszti (Ö-P), mekhí, tesz, visz, vinnénk, ett, itt, aluggyon, aluggyak, alszok, vannak, megy (O)+megyen (Ó-Ö), eltéved, szemvilág, huny, vályog, nyelve, hajnalkor (O)+hajnalban, éjfélkor, pünkösdkor (O+P)+ pünkösdbe (Ó-Ö-P), székhe (O-Ó)+székhez (Ö-P), Erzsiéknyi (O)+Erzsiéknél, -tó/-tú, tojjús+ tollyús (O)+tajus [tüjü is “feather” in Turkish (Ó)+tollas, sinkózik (O-Ó)+simulkázik (Ö).

 

 

Core areas R-S: búza, sása, gabona, kalasz, rozsda, üszök, buzavirág, vadmak (P)+pipacs (S), aranka, lednek, tengeri, levél, cső [tube in English], selyme, csutka, morzsol, paszuj, cső, ugorka [gurkhin in English], sóska, csilánt, dudva, buzogány, zsúf, kereszt, járomszög, járom, vállfa, zabla, persely (R)+puska (S), agykarika, agy, küllő, talpfa, bőrfa, szekér, borona, rög (S)+görincs [ground in English] (R), ekeló, vánkos, kormányvas, seggvakarcs, málna, ribizli, köszméte, fürt, kunkorgója (R)+bajusza (S), kouduscsipa, juha, hordás, épít, cement, szarufa, majorpank (R)+ sárgerenda (S), kakasüllö, pad, ajtófél, orgona, sárgarépa, cékla, mákbugóu+mákbogáncs+buga (S), mákbugóu (R), forgó+napraforgó, …?, méhkas, dongó, zabja, kolompér, petrezselyem [parsley in English], muzsikál [makes music in English] (R)+dorombol (S), nyávog, mar (R)+karmol (S), harap, liheg (R)+nyevel (S), fijal+fijaddzik, vonít, szuka, koca, fijal+fijadzik, búg, kondás, nyáj+csürhe (R), bak, gida, hajszás, csás, makrancos, tinó, üsző, ellik, csürök, pej [bay horse in English], csődör, cserget+csergit, mező [meadow in English], karám, disznóól, gácsér, kacsa, petél (R)+gúnárzik (S), kisliba, petél+tojószkodik, aprómarha, galambducc (R)+dúc (S), ?, (kút)káva, (kút)gém, palánk [plank in English], láptó, furik, fénkü, örv (R)+örü (S), nagyfejsze, (kis)balta, sulyok, rocska, …?, kupa+kanna+bödön [cup and can in English], csupor+bádog, késsel, kanál, szénvonó, parázs, …?, kemence, kicsavarja, öblíti, …?, angi(n)+-ciha, párna, truzsák [straw sack in English]+szalmazsák, lámpaüveg, haj, lóca (R)+lonka [from the English “long”?] (S), gyalokszék, vakjuk, ház, lel, okád, dobog (R), köhög, csámcsog, danul+danú, kacag, nyújtózkodik, telitalpú, pisze (?), libabőrös, csupasz+pucér, szeplős, genny (R)+ csúnyaság (S), bütyök, szemölcs, pattanás, anyajegy, comb, íz, neve(le)tlenujj, hüvelykujj, tenyér, ököl, izom, púp [bump in English], oldalborda, ádámcsutka, szája széle, íny, tejfog, szaolitó, viselős, napam+anyósom, ipam+apósom, lakodalom, kézfogó, fiú (?), nagyapa, nagy-anya (R)+nana (S), papucs, szoknya, kézelő, ingnyak, sajt, sódar [shoulder in English?], tepertő or töpörtyű, hentes, vág, forradás, lángos, széki, rá(n)totta, zurbol, író, angyalbögyörő, kockatészta, laska, fánk, lekvár, befőtt, egyenes, nálunk, nékül, kilső, belső, kivül, túsó, felső, sehun, ithol+itthon, szomjas, öccö(r), pondró, pajorpondró+pondró (S), katicabogár, bodobács, lepke, kabóca+szöcske, szitakötő, vaklégy, légy, csúszó, békanyál, nadály [similar to nadder in Old English], kutyahal (R)+pochal (S), szárnyasegér, (...)kutya, …?, varjú (?)+varnyú, mókus, gyík, vakondok, göncön-, hadak útja, búbospacsirta, bidibanka, patkány (R)+pocok (S), egér, kividul, ködöl, zeng, felleg, dér, veik, pocsoja, alkuszik, térgyepel, bál, lőre, faz(e/i)kas, vetéllő, esztaváta+eszváta [similar in Slav], levélke+baklevel (R parts), motolla, kerekesguzsaly, csepü, fejeszösz, húz, tiló, velő, folyik [flows in English], folyó, juk, kiráj/király, műhely, fuvar, kapkod, fogdos, lökdös, hallja, írjon, esik, rakjál, fel/föl, tolnám, ütötte, megjavult, meghat, kiát, nyomjuk, át-, pipázik, gondolkozik, jegy-, o(l)vasol, kötnénk, nézté, lőnél, lő, tegyé, mondol, taníccsa, taníttya, egyél, mensz, megyek, e(l)pazaro(l)t, rí, beszéltem, mondanak, füröszti, mekhí, teszen, viszen, vinnénk, evett+ett, ivott, aluggyon, aluggyak, alszok, vannak+vagynak, megyen, eltéved, szemvilág, huny, vályog, nyelve, hajnalban, éjfélbe, pünkösdbe, székhez, Erzsiéknél, -tól or -túl, tollas, síkárkózik.

 

 

Core areas SZ-T-TY-U-Ú: búza+tisztabúza (U-Ú), sása, rozs, kalász, rozsda, üszök, búzavirág, pipacs, aranka, bükköny, kukorica, levél+(sás Ú), cső+(kalász SZ), haja (SZ-T)+bajusza, csutka (Ty-U-Ú)+komp or torzsok (T), morzsol, bab, hüvely, huborka (U north-Ú)+uborka+uhorka (SZ), sóska, csana (U-Ú)+csalán (SZ-T), gaz (SZ-T)+fü (TY-U-Ú), páka (U-Ú)+buzogány (SZ-T), zsúp, félkereszt (SZ-T-TY)+kereszt (U), járomszög, járom, vállfa, zabla, puska, agykarika, agy, küllő, talpfa, oldal, szekér (SZ-T-TY)+kocsi (U-Ú), borona, rög, ekeló, vánkos, kormányvas+(kormánydeszka T), csipke+csipkebogyó, málna, ribizli, piszke, fürt+fentő (T), bajusza, mészkó (U-Ú)+enyű+(macskaméz+csiriz in TY), juha, hordás, épít, majter, szarufa+ horokfa (T), sárgerenda (SZ-T)+koszorúgerenda, kakasüllö+fecskefa (T), pallás, ajtóragasztó+ ajtófél (U parts), orgona, sárgarépa, cékla+(cvékla TY), mákhaj, mákfej, tányérrózsa, sejt+lép, köpü+méhkas (T), méhecske, kalássza, krumpli, petrezselyem+petrezse+petrezsilem (T), muzsikál (T-U), nyávog, kapar, harap, liheg, kölykezik+ellik (U), vonít, nősténykutya, koca, malacozik+ellik (U), búgik+zúgik (T), kanász, disznócsorda, bak, gida, belső (T-TY-Ú)+hajszás (SZ-U), késztűső+cselös (U), kötődő, tinó, üsző, csikózik (SZ-T-TY)+ellik (U-Ú), csülök, pej+pirospej, csődör, csattant+pattant, határ, rajcsúr, disznóól+hidas, kacser+bakkacsa (U), kacsa, gúnárzik, kisliba, hericskő+sisázik+sisál (all of T)+cicerél (?), baromfi, galambház+galambos (U), kiássuk, kútkáva+(kút)rovás, (kút)gém+sújtó+hánkálík (both T), deszkakerítés+palang (T), létra (?), talicska (SZ-T)+furik (TY-U-Ú), kaszakő (SZ-T)+fén (TY-U-Ú), kaszakarika, nagyfejsze, (kis)balta, mosófa (T)+súk (TY-U-Ú), zsojtár or zsétár, öntözőkanna+kupa (U), döböny, bögre+gebre (T), késvel, kana (TY-U-Ú)+kanál (SZ-T), szénvonó, parázs, kutács, kemence, kicsavarja, öblíti, fölbontja or felbontja (U-Ú)+elbontja (T), angi(n)+-ciha, vánkos+(fejel Ú), trózsák, lámpaüveg, ciha (SZ-T-TY)+haj (TY-U-Ú), lóca (TY-U-Ú)+pad (SZ-T), kisszék, vakablak, ház, tanál, okád, dobog (TY-U)+ver (SZ-T-Ú), köhög, csámcsog+(csáncsog TY-Ú), danul+danú, nevet, nyújtózkodik+(huzakszik TY-Ú), lúdtalpú+ (telitalpú SZ-T parts), tukacs (T)+turpisz (U), lúdbőrös, mesztelen, szeplős, rúccság (SZ-T-TY)+genny (U-Ú), bütyök, tyúksegg, pattanás, anyajel (SZ-T)+anyajegy (TY-U-Ú), comb (SZ-T-U)+ín (SZ-T)+bonc (TY-Ú), perc (TY-U-Ú)+íz (SZ-T), gyűrüsujj (SZ-T-TY-Ú)+ neve(le)tlenujj (U), hüvelykujj (SZ-TY-Ú)+öregúj (T)+nagyujj (U), tenyér, ököl, izom, köldök, oldalborda, ádámcsutka, szája széle, íny, tejfog, halánték (SZ-T)+vakszem (TY-U-Ú), állapotos (TY-U)+vastag (SZ-T-Ú)+várandós (T mostly), anyósom+napam (T), apósom+ipam (T), lakodalom+lagzi (T), kézfogó+kendőlakás (U), gyerek, öregapa (T-U)+apó (parts of U), nagyanya+ mamika (TY-Ú), mamusz, szoknya, kézelő+lemec (T), ingnyak+gallér (T), sajt, sonka, tepertő or töpörtyű, ölő (SZ-T)+böllér (U-Ú), szeg, púp (T)+domó (U), lángos+lepíny (T), sárgája, süttojás (SZ-T)+rá(n)totta (TY-U-Ú), köpül, író, krumplinúdli, sifli (Sz-T-Ú)+haluska (U), metélt tészta+csík (U), siska (SZ-T)+pampuska (TY-U-Ú), lekvár, befőtt, igenyös, hozzánk (SZ-T)+nálunk (TY-U-Ú), nékű, kiső (SZ-T)+kilső (TY-U-Ú), beső (SZ-T)+belsö (TY-U-Ú), kívül+kívü (U), túsó, főső (T)+felső (U), sehun, itthon, szomjas, öccö(r), nyív (SZ-T)+kukac (U)+féreg (SZ-TY-Ú), pata (SZ-T)+pajod (U),katalinka (T)+katica (U)+istenkéje tehenke [“Little God’s little cow,” from Slavic] (T parts), istenkebugárka (T)+bodobács (U), lepke (?)+lipe (U), szöcske (?), szitakötő, bagólégy (T)+bögö (U), légy, kígyó, békanyál, pióca, kutyahal, bőrmadár (SZ-T)+bőregér (TY-U-Ú), (...)disznó+(...)kutya (Ty-Ú-T parts), varnyú?, varnyú (U)+varjú and csóka (T), mókus, gyík, vakondok, göncöl-+döncö- (U parts), tejút, búbospacsirta (SZ-T)+pipiske (TY-U-Ú), dutka+búbos banka, patkány, egér, kiderül, szitál (?), zeng+zörög, fölhő, dér, lék, tócsa (?), alkuszik, térdel (?)+térbetyül (U), báld (Ty-U-Ú)+bál, csigér/csenger, faz(e/i)kas, vetéllő+csónak (T parts)+fapina (U parts), szatva, gombolyító, motolla, ropka, kóc, feje (U-Ú)+szála (TY), héhö, tiló, velő, folyik, folyó+foló (T Western), lyuk+luk or juk (T), kiráj/király, műhely, fuvar, kabdos, fogdos, lökdös, hallja, írjon, esik, rakj, fe/fö, tónám, ütte (SZ-T)+ütötte (TY-U-Ú), megjavut, meghat, kiát, nyomjuk, át-, pipál, gondolkozik, jel-/gyel- (SZ-T)+jegy- (TY-U-Ú), ó(l)vasó, kötnénk, nézté, lőné, lő, tegyé, mondasz, taníccsa (SZ-T-TY)+taníjja (U-Ú), taníttya, egyé/ögyé, mész, megyek, e(l)pazaro(l)t, rí, beszétem, mondanak+monnak (T), füröszti (SZ-T)+fürdeti (TY-U-Ú), mekhí, tesz, visz, vinnénk, evett (SZ-T)+ett (TY-U-Ú), ivott (SZ-T)+itt (TY-U-Ú), aluggyon, aluggyak, alszok, vannak, megy, eltéved, szemvilág, huny, vályog, nyeve (SZ-T)+nyelve (TY-U-Ú), hajnalban, éjfélkor (T)+éjfélbe (U), pünkösdkor, székhe, Erzsiékhö, -tó or -tú, tollas+tojjús or tollyús (U), csúszkál.

 

 

Core areas Ü-V-W: búza, sása, gabona, kalász, rozsda, üszök, búzavirág, vadmák+lúdmák, aranka, bükköny, kukorica, levél, cső, bajusza, csutka, morzsol, bab, hüvely, iborka, sóska, csana+csenál, dudva, buzogány, zsúp+zsúf (Southern part), csomó (Ü)+kereszt (V-W), járomszög, járom, vállfa, zabla, puska, agykarika, agy, küllő, talpfa, derék (Ü)+oldal (V-W), szekér, borona, rög, ekeló, vánkos, kormányvas, szöröspiszke+csipke(bogyó), málna, ribizli, büszke+piszke, fürt, bajusza, enyü (Ü)+mézga (V)+kouduscsipa (W), juha, hordás, épít, majter, szarufa, sárgerenda+mórpáng, kakasüllő, pad, firstok, orgona, sárgarépa, cékla, mákhaj, mákfej, tányérvirág+makuka, slejt+sejt, köpü, méh, zabja, kompér+gruja, petrezselyem, dorombol+ brúgol, nyávog, karmol, harap, liheg, fiadzzik (Ü)+kölykezik, vonít, szuka+emekutya+ koca(kutya), koca, fijaddzik, búgik, kondás, nyáj, bak, gida, belső (Ü)+hajszás (V-W), kezes (Ü)+csás, baklós, tinó, tinó, fijadzik+csikózik, csürök, pej, csődör, pattant, mező+határ, rajcsúr, hidas, kacsagunár+gunár, kacsa, gúnárzik, kisliba, hergel (Ü)+tojószkodik (V-W), aprólék, galambház, kiássuk, kútkáva, (kút)gém, deszkakerítés, létra+retlya, furik, fén, kaszakarika, nagyfejsze, (kis)balta, súk, zsétár or zsojtár, …?, bödöny, bádog, késvel, kanál, szénvonó, parázs, kutács, kemence, kicsavarja, öblíti, elbontja, turbuk, fejel, trózsák, lámpaüveg, haj, lóca, kisszék, vakablak, ház, tanál, okád, ver, köhög, csámcsog, danul+danú, nevet, huzakszik, telitalpú+ lúdtalpú, fitos, libabörös, mesztelen+cibak, szeplős, rúccság+genny, bütyök, tyúksegg, pattanás, anyajegy, bonc, perc+íz, neve(le)tlenujj+gyűrüsujj, nagyujj, tereny, ököl, izom, púp, oldalborda, ádámcsutka, szája széle, íny, tejfog, vakszem, viselős, anyósom+anyokom, apósom+apjokom, lagzi+lakodalom, kézfogó+kendőlakás, fiú (?), nagyapa, szüle+mamó+ nagyanya, tutyi?, szoknya, kézelő, ingnyak, sajt, sonka+sódar (V-W), tepertő or töpörtyű, hentes, szel, domó, lángos, széki (south Ü)+sárgája, rá(n)totta, köpül, író, krumplinúdli+(kokoska V), kocka+lecske, csík+metélt tészta, pampuska+kröpli, lekvár, befőtt, egyenes, nálunk, nékü, kilső, belső, kivvel+kivül, túsó+túlsó, felső, sehol, itthon, szomjas, öccö(r), pondré+pondró, pajod, istenkebogár, verőkötő, lepe+lipe+lepke, kabóca, kígyószolga+szitakötő, dandár+dongó+pécsik+ précsik, légy, kígyó, békanyál, pióca, kutyahal+cigányhal, bőregér+denevér, (...)disznó, varnyú (?), csóka, mókus, gyík, vakondok, göncöl-, tejút, pipiske+búbos pacsirta, büdösbanka, patkány, egér, …?, lajhál, zeng, felyhő+burolás+ború, dér, lék, tócsa+pocsoja, alkuszik, térgyepel, bál, lőre, faz(e/i)kas, vetéllő, szatyva, mota+vertöke+baksa(level)+baklevel, motolla, kerekesguzsaly, csepü, feje+feji, von+csinál+öcsel+ecsel, simító+tiló, velő, folyik, folyó, juk, kiráj/király, műhely, fuvar, kabdos, fogdos, lökdös, hallja, írjék (Ü)+írjon (V-W), esik, rakjál, fel/föl, tolnám, ütte (Ü)+ütötte (V-W), megjavut, meghalt, kiát, nyomuk, át-, pipázik, gondolkozik, jegy-, o(l)vasol, kötnénk, néztél, lőné (Ü)+lőnél (V-W), lő, tegyé, mondasz (Ü)+mondol (V-W), taníjja, taníttya, egyél, mész, megyek, e(l)pazaro(l)t, rí, beszétem (Ü)+beszéltem (V-W), mondanak, fürdeti, mekhí, tesz, visz, vinnénk, ett, itt, aluggyon, aluggyak, alszok, vannak, megyen, eltéved, szembábu, huny, vályog, nyelve, hajnalkor (Ü mostly)+hajnalba(n) (V-W), éjfélkor, pünkösdkor (Ü)+pünkösdbe (V-W), székhe+székhez, Erzsiéknyi (Ü)+Erzsiéknél (V-W), -tó or -tú, tollas, sinkózik.

 

 

Core area Z: búza, levele, rozs, kalász, rogya, üszök, buzavirág, pipacs, fecskefonal+ fecskecérna, bükköny, málé, levél, cső, bajusza, csuszna+tusnya, fejt, paszuj, cső, ugarka [gurkhinin English], sóska, csalán, (“gaz” has a wide variety), kákabot+ciróka, zsúp, kereszt, járompáca, járom, vállfa, zabla, puska, agykarika, kerékfő+tőke+butykó, küllő, fal, oldal, szekér, borona, göröngy+göröncs, (eke)kabala, párna, kormányvas, csipke, málna, veresszöllö, köszméte+egres, fürt, bajusza, csipa+(enyö, enyü), juha, búzahordás, épít+csál (Southern part), majter+kulimász (#6), szarufa, tapaz-gerenda, kakasüllő, padlás+hiju, ajtófél+tok, borostyán, murok, cékla, (unknown), (unknown), forgou, lép, méhkas+gyékénykas, méh, barkája+(virágja), kolompir+krompli+bojóka, petrezselyem, morog+dörmög, nyávog, karmol, harap, liheg, kölykezik, uhujgat+ujjogat+ordít, kocakutya, koca, fijaddzik, rühet [“est en rut” in French], kondás, csürhe, cáp, gida, belső, ember-, makrancos, tinó, üszőtinó, ellik, csikló, piros, csődör, cserget+dürint, mező, …?, disznóól, gácsér, ruca, gúnárol, pipe, kokasol+ peterézik+berbitél, majorság, galambház, kiássuk, gárgya, (kút)gém, kerítés+deckakert+borona, lajtorja, targonca+tarbonca, fénkő, kaszakarika, nagyfejsze, (kis)balta, sulyok, sajtár, locsoló, bádog, csupor, késsel, kanál, szénvonó, szén, horog, kemence, kifacsarja, rázza, megveti, angi(n)+-ciha, párna, surgyé(i), lámpaüveg, haj, hosszúszék, kisszék, vakablak, ház, lel, hány, ver, köhög, csámcsog, danol+(dúdol), kacag, meredezik, telitalpú, törtorrú, …?, pucér, szeplős, genny, bök, szemölcs, pattanás, anyajegy, comb, íz, neve(le)tlenujj, hüvelykujj, tenyér, ököl, izom, púp, oldalborda, ádámtorzsája, ajak(a), íny, tejfog, vakszem, terhes+vastag, anyósom, apósom, lakodalom, készfogás, fiú, papa+bopa, nana, …?, szoknya, kézelö, ingnyak, gömbec, sonka, tepertő or töpörtyű, hentes, vág, ducc, lángos, sárgája, rá(n)totta, köpül, író, nugli, kockatészta, metélt tészta, fánk, íz, befőtt, egyenes, hozzánk, nékü, kiső, beső, külül, túsó, főső, sehun, itthon, szomnyas, öccö(r), fíreg+nyü+pondró, csimasz, kató+puskató+katóbabó, bodobács, pillangó, sáska, kígyópásztor+vizipillangó, nagylégy, légy, kígyó, békanyál, vérszívó, bikitárcs, denevér+púpegér, (...)disznó, varjú, …?, mókus, gyík, vakondok+vakoncs, göncör-+ göncöl-, hadak útja, búbospacsirta, pupuza, pocegér, egér, kitisztul, lanyházik+preszkel, dörög, felleg, dér, juk, tócsa, alkuszik, térdel, bál, csigér/csenger, fazakas, vetéllő, osztováta [see Slavic form], takerő+bagiccs (Z2), motolla, kerekesguzsaly, csepü, kender+ecsetkender, öcsel+ecsel, tiló, velö, folyik, folyó, juk, kiráj/király, műhely, fuvar, kapkod, fogdos, lökdös, hallja, írjon, esik, rakj, fe/fö, tolnám, ütötte, megjavult, meghat, kiát, nyomjuk, át-, pipál, gondolkozik, jegy-, ó(l)vasó, kötnők, nézté, lőné, lő, tegyé, mondasz, taníccsa, taníttya, egyél, mísz, mengyek, e(l)pazaro(l)t, (unknown), beszétem+beszéltem, mondanak, füröszti, , teszen, viszen, vinnök, ett, ivott, aluggyon, aluggyak, alszom+alszok, vagynak, mengyen, elvesz(tődik), szemfény, huny, vályog, nyelve, hajnalban, éjfélkor, pünkösdbe, székhez, Erzsiékhö, -tól or -túl, tollas, csiszinkázik.

 

 

Core area ZS: búza, levele, rozs, …?, rozsda [see rust in English or Rost in German], üszök, búzavirág, pipacs, aranka, bükköny, terebuza+málé, levél, cső, bajusza, kocsány, fejt, fuszujka, cső, ugarka, sóska, csihány, burján, picus (and other forms), zsúp, kereszt, járompáca, járom, vállfa, zabla, puska, agykarika, kerékfő+tőke+butykó), küllő, falfa, oldal, szekér, borona, gaj [gea or geo in Greek], (eke)kabala, vánkos, kormányvas, segvakaró+hecsempecs, málna, veresszöllö, egres, gerezd, bajusza, macskaméz+szurak, juha, búzahordás, épít, majter, szarufa, sárgerenda+koszorú+tapaszgerenda, kakasüllö, hiju, ajtófél, brostyán+borostyány, murok, cékla, (unknown), (unknown), napraforgó, lép, méhkas, méh, virágja, pityóka, petrezselyem, fan+dörmög, nyávog, karmol, mar, liheg, kölykezik, ordít, nösténykutya, koca+eme, malacozik, búgik+rühet, disznópásztor, disznócsorda, cáp, gida, hajszás, ember-, rosszhúzó+fortéjos, tinó, tinó, csikózik, csüd, piros, csödör, (cserdít?), mező, …?, disznóól, gácsér, réce, gúnárzik, pipe, kakasal, majorság, galambház, kiássuk, gárgya, (kút)gém, deszkakerítés, lajtorja, targonca+tarbonca, fénkő, kaszakarika, nagyfejsze, (kis)balta, sulyok, sajtár, öntöző, …?, csupor, késsel, kalány, szénvonó, szén, horog, kemence, …?, kifacsarja, kirázza+kiömlíti, megveti, angi(n)+-ciha, párna, surgye, lámpaüveg, haj, pad, kisszék, vakablak, ház, kap, hány+okádik, ver, köhög, csámcsog, énekel+ danul+danú, kacag, nyújtózkodik, telitalpú, turtyiorrú, …?, csurdés+purdé, szeplős, genny, göcs+görcs, sümölcs, pattanás, anyajegy, natyhús+vastaghús, íz, gyűrüsujj, hüvelykujj, tenyér, ököl, izom, burik+ködök, oldalborda, ádámcsutka, ajak(a), íny, tejfog, vakszem, vastag+ viselős, anyósom, apósom, bál+ lakodalom, kérés+mátkaság, fiú, bapo, nana, …?, szoknya, kézelő, ingnyak, sajt, sonka, tepertő or töpörtyű, böllér, vág, ducc, lángos, sárgája, rá(n)totta, köpül, író, krumplinúdli, kockatészta, metélt tészta, fánk [pan in Spanish, bun in English], íz, kompót, egyenes, hozzánk, (varies), kilső, belső, kivül, túsó, felső, sehun, itthon, szomjas, öt versen, nyű, csórmány or csormag+csimasz, cserebogár+katicabogár, bodobács, pillangó, kaszás, szitakötő, nagylégy+muszka, légy, kígyó, békanyál+braszkanyál (ZS 4), pióca, kutyahal (?)+etc, szárnyasegér+(punaga), (...)disznó, varjú, …?, mókus, sopirla+gyík, patkány, göncör-+ göncöl-, hadak útja, búbospacsirta, pupuza+ búbos banka, pocegér+nagyegér, egér, kitisztul, szitál+csepereg, dörög, felleg+felhö?, hóharmat, juk+produ, tócska+pocsoja, alkuszik, térdel (?), bál, csigér/csenger, fazakas, vetéllő, osztováta [see in Slavic], tekerő, motolla, fonógép, (unknown), (varies), pácol+hehel, tiló, velő, foj, folyó, juk, kiráj/király, műhely, fuvar, kapdasodik, fogdos, lökdös, hallja, írjon, es+ess, rakjál, fel/föl, tónám, ütötte, megjavult, meghat, kiát, nyomjuk, átal-, pipázik, gondolkozik, jegy-, ó(l)vasó, kötnűk, néztél, lőné, lő, tegyé, mondasz, taníccsa, taníttya, egyél, mísz, megyek, e(l)pazaro(l)t, (unknown), beszétem+ beszéltem, mondanak, füröszti, hivu+hí, teszen, viszen, vinnők, ett, ivott, aluggyék, aluggyak, alszom+alszok, vannak, menyen, elvesz(tődik), szemvilág, huny, vályog, nyelve, hajnalban, éjfélkor, pünkösdbe, székhez, Erzsiékhö, -tól or -túl, tollas, csúszkál.

 

 

Core area X: búza, levele, rozs, …?, rozsda, üszök, búzavirág, pipacs, fecskefonál, bükköny, terebúza+málé, levél, cső, bajusza, kocsány, fejt, fuszujka, cső (“paszte” in Ro-3), ugarka, sóska, csalán, burján, buzogány, zsúp, kalangya, járompáca, járom, vállfa, zabla, puska, agykarika, kerékfő+tőke+butykó), küllő, falfa, rétájja [ridelle in French], szekér, borona, (gaj+rög+göröngy), (eke)kabala, vánkos, kormányvas, seggvakaró+hecsempecs+mecsiás, málna, veresszöllö, egres, gerezd, bajusza, macskaméz, juha, búzahordás, épít+csál (Southern part), majter+vakolás (#16)+kulimász (#16)+piszok (#8, see Slavic “pesok” that means ”sand”), szarufa, vántur [Spanishviento=wind], kakasüllő, hiju+pad, tok+ajtósas, barastyány+baracsihan, murok, cékla, (unknown), (unknown), napraforgó, lép, méhkas, méh, virágja+(cirókája), pityóka, petrezselyem, dorombol+(fan in X16), nyávog, karmol, mar [muerde in Spanish], liheg, kölykezik, urtál+kauszal, nősténykutya+(kecávo in X3), eme, malacozik, búgik, disznópásztor, disznócsorda, cáp, gida, hajszás, ember-, erkőcsös+szukás+kutyás+pagány, tulak, tinó, csitkózik, csukló+sikla+hajlás, piros, mén+ménló, lű+csattint+pattint, határ, …?, disznóól, gácsér, réce, pelerész+gunaral, pipe, kakasal, majorság, duc+bug+galambház, kiássuk, gárgya, kudgém+kampana, pallánk+kerítés+kert, lajtorja, raba+tarbanca+targonca, fénkő, kaszakarika, nagyfejsze, (kis)balta, sulyok, sajtár, öntöző, zsíroskanna+bödön, csupor, késsel, kalány, szénvonó, szén, horog, kemence, kifacsarja, tisztája (and other forms), megveti, angi(n)+-ciha, párna, trozsák+sudré+surde, lámpaüveg, haj, hosszúszék+pucikszék, kisszék, vakablak, ház, kap, hány, ver, köhög, csámcsog, énekel, kacag, nyújtózkodik, telitalpú, turtyit+butaorrú, …?, csurde, szeplős, genny, bag, sümölcs, bibircsó+bubuca, anyajegy, comb, íz, gyürüsujj, hüvelykujj, tenyér, ököl, izom, burik, oldalborda, ádámcsutka, ajak(a), fokhús, tejfog, vakszem, vastag, anyósom, apósom, lakodalom, mátkaság, fiú, bapó+etc., nana, …?, fersing, kézelő, ingnyak, disznófősajt, sonka, tepertő or töpörtyű, mészáros, vág, ducc, lángos, sárgája, rá(n)totta, köpül, zer+zéró [serum in English?], krumplinúdli, kockatészta, metélt tészta, pánkó, íz, befőtt, egyenes, hozzánk, nékül, kiső, beső, kiül, túsó, főső, sehun, itthon, szamnyas, öt versen+öt vessen, nyű+kodác+hirnyó [“hirudo” in Latin?], csórmány or csormag+csimasz, paparuza+memeruca+katibogár+katicabogár, guzsulija (X 3)+bodobács, pillangó, kaszás, szitakötő, …?, légy, kígyó+(kijó), békanyál, pióca, kutyahal, punaga (in X8)+(cickelevél?, cickelevény?), (...)disznó, varjú, …?, mókus, sipirka+gyík, patkány, göncör-+göncöl-, hadak útja+szalmásút (in X16), búbospacsirta, pupuza+búbos banka, kazák+guzák+pocegér, egér, kitisztul, szitál+csepereg+cirál+pernyedezik (latter two forms in X8), dörög, felleg, hóharmat, juk+(“burduf” in X16), tócsa, alkuszik, térdel (?), bál, csigér/csenger, fazakas, vetéllő, osztováta+(asztalváta in X8), takerőlevél, motolla, rokka (?), csepü+aprószösz (in X3), (varies), öcsel+ecsel, tiló, velő, folyik, folyó, juk, kiráj/király, műhely, fuvar, kabdas, fogdos, lökdös, hallja, írjon, es+ess, rakjál, fel/föl, tolnám, ütötte, megjavult, meghat, kiát, nyomjuk, átal-, pipázik, gondolkozik, jegy-, ó(l)vasó, kötnők, néztél, lőné, lő, tegyé, mondol, taníccsa, taníttya, egyél, mísz, menyek, e(l)pazaro(l)t, (unknown), beszétem+beszéltem, mondanak, füröszti, hivu+hí, teszen, viszen, vinnők, ett, ivott, aluggyék, aluggyam, alszom, vannak, menyen, elvesz(tődik), szemvilág+szemfény, huny, vályog, nyelve, hajnalban, féléccakakor, pünkösdbe, székhez, Erzsiékhez, -tól or -túl, tollas, csúszkál.

 

            The English philologist, Sir John Browning (1792-1872) spoke many languages: Hungarian was one of them. He translated many Hungarian poems into English, and issued a literary chrestomathy. In its foreword he wrote the following:

The Hungarian language goes far back. It developed in a very peculiar manner and its structure reaches back to times when most of the now spoken European languages did not even exist. It is a language which developed steadily and firmly in itself, and in which there are logic and mathematics with the adaptability and malleability of strength and chords. The Englishman should be proud that his language indicates an epic of human history. One can show forth its origin; and alien layers can be distinguished in it, which gathered together during the contacts with different nations. Whereas the Hungarian language is like a rubble-stone, consisting of only one piece, on which the storms of time left not a scratch. It’s not a calendar that adjusts to the changes of the ages. It needs no one, it doesn’t give or take from anyone. This language is the oldest and most glorious monument of national sovereignty and mental independence. What scholars cannot solve, they ignore. In philology it’s the same way as in archaeology. The floors of the old Egyptian temples, which were made out of only one rock, can’t be explained. No one knows where they came from, or from which mountain the wondrous mass was taken. How they were transported and lifted to the top of the temples. The genuineness of the Hungarian language is a phenomenon much more wondrous than this. He who solves it shall be analysing the Divine secret; in fact the first thesis of this secret:

‘In the beginning there was Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.’

 

Without trying to hurt the memory of Sir Browning, I think that the Hungarian is not older than any other language. Maybe it is more unique in many aspects. For example, the blood covenant between seven tribes (of perhaps different origin) gave a possibility for all to donate their languages to a “pool.” The words of a language are the genes or chromosomes that reveal the unwritten history of a nation when the writings perish. For example, the first Hungarian kings and their Catholic supporters burned all of the runic Hungarian records by the wagonloads. We may never be able to reconstruct names and dates, but the semantic study of the vocabulary reveals almost everything else, including the origin of the speakers of those dialects. Fortunately, this rule is valid for most languages, if they have built in their logics into their dialects.

Although it may sound bizarre or ridiculous for an orthodox linguist, the uniqueness of the Hungarian language allows us to compare its components with those of any other language on any continent, without much ado. There is no authority that would even exclude the remote possibility of a Hungarian tribe crossing over to America 15,000 years ago. Perhaps that little group once lived for a century with the ancestors of the Uto-Aztec speakers, but for some reason returned to Asia. Such theory is quite weird and we do not propose it. Rather, on can trace links between the ancestors of at least one Hungarian tribe to Southeast Asia, based on its large of lexical similarities betwen the proto-Philippine languages. Please note that our tab about the Philippine languages points out major similarities between the Proto-Philippine and the proto-Baltic languages. If the Hungarian word for "sun" ("nap") has its counterpart in the Solomon Islands or New Hebrides to the east of Papua New Guinea, and another one for "cave" ("barlang") in Australia lingusts should consider that those two words may have existed 40,000 years ago. The tribe of the Aborigines that knew the word "burlong" probably arrived to Australia 10,000 to 50,000 years ago. If this is true, it may indicate that the basic words of hundreds or thousands of languages of the world could be much more than 10,000 years old.  

 

A medieval English book says that some Hungarians claim their origin from America through the Straight of Anian, the Behring Straight. Although I am unaware of such Hungarian tradition, nothing seems impossible without borders and border guards in the remote past. It is more probable that some of the north American Indian nations had contacts with the ancestors of the Turks, Mongolians, and Hungarians before they have departed from Asia. A single word does not mean much, but I have no difficulty to associate a Hungarian dialectal form for "csipkerozsa" meaning “rosehip,” namely “hecsedli” with the Nahuatl “xochitl” (“flower” or "rose"), “négy” (the numeral “four”) with the Cree “neyo,” the Delaware “neewa,” the Ojibwe “niwo,” the Micmac “neggwel,” or the Swahili “nne.” One of the North American nations - perhaps the Mohawks - used almost the same word for "heron" than the Hungarians. Or, we can collate the Japanese word “teriyaki” with the Turkish “tereyagi” (“butter”). Let alone that the long word for "butterfly" in the Turkish language has its almost identical counterparts in some of the 43 minor Philippine languages. Whic support the historical fact that the Turks of modern Turkey originated from the east and the ancestors of those Philippine nations once lived in the west, on the Asian continent. Thus, their early contact thousands of years ago is not an impossibility.

Finding a large number of similar “cognates” in the Cocopa and the Cheke Holo languages was quite surprising for me. (I use quotation marks, because cognates supposedly cannot exist in a pair of unrelated languages. But who can be certain that none of the ancient components of these two nations have ever been related somehow?) Geographically speaking, the Cocopa is North American, and the Cheke Holo is Melanesian. Here we list a few words from these two languages, respectively: yawar – kabre; lysuly – lise; kwlyap – glaulapu; man – funu; wat – fada [vet in Hungarian, bota in Spanish, related to vote in English]; ‘am‘i – kmo’e; ‘aya – gaiju [gally in Hungarian, galho in Portuguese: “branch,” not “tree”]; wi – filo; pa – pala; xir – haru; xasany – ga’ase [kiz in Turkish, xa-si’i in Mixtec, goce in Albanian]; qwas – kmusa; cuwar – snamore; (ny)kw’al – guli; xyay – khujo; kwi – khoveo; kwrap – khabru; kwar – ukro [ochre ?]; walish – blau; kamot – khumara; shma – hume; -pi – fei [felé in Hungarian, towards in English]; xawily – kholo [gol in Turkish]; wa’i – fa-…; nya – na-… [nap in Hungarian, just like in a Melanesian language]; coyer – gore; nyak – nathu’i; nyak – khoga; pus – khusi; klyak-lyak – legu-lahu; skwis – gusna [quest in English]; piw’i – bi’o [big in English]; finally xany – thono.

Let us return to the Hungarian language that is probably a mixture of the languages of seven (or rather ten) tribes. Also, about hundred female ancestors of them (that had been carried off by the hunters) spoke Indo-European (maybe Gothic, or Alan) languages. Since Hungarians have “mother-tongue” and not “father-tongue,” it would be a mistake to ignore this Indo-European influence on the proto-Hungarian language. We have better to take the legend of origin more seriously that is harmonious with history and archaeology as well.

            A long list of Hungarian roots can be also found in the oldest Indo-European languages like Sanskrit, Greek and Latin. Its lexical similarities with the Sanskrit cannot be ignored. We have seen on page 86a potential Hungarian ruler called Prakasa, in Northern Persia. His name is “Farkas” (“Wolf”) in modern Hungarian, a very common surname. It has Sanskrit origin, just like the Hungarian dialectal word “párna” for pillow. “Farkas” is a compound Hungarian word, from the root “fark” or “farok” (“tail”) with an –s suffix, pronounced –sh. It means “[an animal] with tail.” The situation is similar with the Latin word “cervus” (“stag” or “deer”): its root is “cerv” that corresponds to the Magyar root “szarv” (“horn”) and “szaru,” its material. The connection between the Spanich “cerdo” (“pig”) and the Hungarian “sertés” (“the one with thick hair”) is likely more recent, with the root “serte” or “sörte.”

            We find in Lord (1966: 177-178) the details of the word “wolf” in Sanskrit: singular N. vrk-ah, plural N. vrk-ás, genitive vrk-ásya. In Hungarian: Sing. N. fark-a-s, Pl. N. fark-a-s-o-k, Gen.: fark-a-s-é. Also see the Sanskrit vrkasya, and Hom, Greek lukoio; *eso in Germanic only (Pr. Germ. * wulfesa). Further, the Sanskrit tapas (“heat”), see Lord 1966: 236, is “tavasz”(“spring”) in Hungarian as the season, warm weather. The Sanskrit artha (1966: 243) or “meaning’ is ért+elem (“meaning”) in Hungarian, from ért- “understands.”The forms “ismer,” “esmer,” or “ösmer” in Hungarian dialects mean “know.” Their French counterpart is “esmer.”

            We can continue with the Sanskrit nakt = (Gr.) nuks ‘night’  = (Hung.) nyugsz- (the root of ‘quiet,’also nyugat ‘West’), or, the Sanskrit sruta- ‘heard’; (Gr.) klutos; (Lat.) -clutus; (Irish) cloth; (Hung.) hallott (‘heard’); the Sanskrit udrá- ‘otter’ = (Hung.) vidra ‘otter’ = (Gr.) húdor ‘water’ (Lord, 1966: 171-174). Also, see Lord, 1966: 94: Sanskrit bharami=Greek phero= Armenian berem=Germanic (Goth.) baira (‘I carry’). We add the Hungarian “bírom” (‘I bear’) with the sound correspondence formula: (Skr.) bh = (Gr.) ph = (Arm.) b = (Germ.) b = (Hung.) b, also in Lord (1966: 123): Goth. baíran, O.E. beran = O.H.G. beran ‘to bear’ = Hungarian bírni ‘to bear.’ Similarly, the Sanskrit yakar = ‘liver’ (1966: 103) matches with the Hungarian zsigér (“liver,” obsolete form). The Hungarian párna has its Sanskrit counterpart with the same meaning (“pillow”), originating from the Sanskrit prnáti=”fill.” Here belong the Sanskrit ádhat (“he placed”), the Lithuanian deti (‘to place”), or the Hungarian tett (‘he placed,’ or ‘did’) = English (I or he/she) did. The Armenian, Greek, Gothic “correspondences” are weak, meaning “custom” or “action,” so it is hard to call them “correspondences,” adds Lord. Semantically the English did, done, and does correponds to the Hungarian words tett, tény (“fact”) and tesz.

            Lord (1966:99) mentions the Sanskrit - (‘who’?), the Latin quis [to which we add the Hungarian ki (‘who’? and ‘out’)], noting of the Laws of Sound Change: “All we can say for certain is that an earlier sound has been replaced by a later one, but this does not imply evolution.” Lord (1966: 97) reminds us the general linguistic opinion, “Word meanings are the worst guides.” [Then how, on what criteria, can we group phonemes if we totally ignore their meanings?] He tells about the reconstruction of Indo-European, “we should still have no certainty as to what Indo-European was like as a language. A hugely impressive system of interlocking phonological correspondences and morphological elements, but still no language.”

            Talking about the word “hundred” in different languages: (Latin) centum = (Gr.) ékáton = (Irish) cet = (Tokharian A) kant = (Skr.) satám = (Avestan) satem = (Lith.) szimtas = (O. Slav.) suto and Hungarian száz, with sound correspondences as in cents and hands: száz and kéz. According to the correspondences for the palatal sound-shift, the Hungarian (velar) z in the ‘satem’ column would correspond to the Indo-European ‘centum’ (palato-velar) g sound. The Sanskrit cakra- and the Greek kuklos ‘wheel’ may correspond to the Hungarian words csokor, csupor, csöbör, and szekér (somehow all connected with the notion of a round object).

            Lord (1966: 146) is incorrect about the Hungarian plural suffix by telling, “In Hungarian the suffix –ak serves the purpose of forming noun and verb plurals: vart-ak ‘they have waited’ hars-ak ‘linden trees.’ In reality, only the –k is a suffix. The vowel “a” is just a facilitator.

            If the world’s languages are c. 50,000 years old, then the ancestors of those ten Hungarian tribes had plenty of time to know all continents, using the ancient continental bridges. If a Magyar expressed the notion of  “me too,” he said, “én is,” a Maya Indian said, “in ix” [een ish]. Would this be mere coincidence? This has nothing to do with relationship, for the grammars and vocabularies of these languages are very different. However, it would be hard to reject some kind of ancient contact between them. Similarly the Aztec “papaloa,” the French “papillon,” the Irish “feileacan” and the Hungarian “pillangó” can be cognates, also the Aztec “teo” and the Greek “theo” (‘God’), despite of the lack of linguistic relationship between their languages.

            Freeborn (1992: 120 and 456) mentions the development of the Old English word “hwanon,” later “wonene” (ME) and “whence” (MnE), and the word “wlitan” (“to look”). Their Hungarian counterparts are “honnan” (“from where?”) and “látni” (“to see”). A supposed archaic *hwonen could have been the ancestor of both the English and the Hungarian word. The Magyars widely use the suffixes –nan and –nen with a “from” meaning: innen, onnan, amonnan, honnan, túlnan. (“Túl” means ”too” and “beyond.”)  The Old English word “hwaer” (“where?”) corresponds to the Hungarian “merre?” that means also “where.” Here we show a list of sound correspondences, without major semantic shifts, between many English and Hungarian words:

We = mi; where = merre; what = mit; wash = mos; went = ment. Such wm parallels are acceptable, just like between the English “with” and the German “mit” (also “midwife,” or “meek” and “weak”). The “w,” “v,” “b” and “f” often correspond to each other: wall=fal; village boy=falusi fiú; and leaf=levél. Another sound correspondence is between the English “w” and the Hungarian “ö” or “ő” sounds: meadow – mező; wards – őriz; dwarf – törpe [related to the German “Dorf”?]; sew – szöv- and sző (‘weaves’); own – ön; owns – önz (a root for ‘shelfish’); sweeper – söprő; owl – ölyű or ölyv; new – nő (semantic shift: ‘grows’ and ‘woman’); shallow – sellő (rocky section of the riverbed, with a drop; also means mermaid); two - kettő.

The list of corresponding words wound include over hundred pairs, so we have to condense our list: water – víz, hand – kéz; hundred – száz (as in the “satem” branch of the Indo-European languages); mother – mama (dialectal); dad – tata (Old Hungarian and dialectal), child – család/cseléd; baby – baba; tit(s) – csecs, tőgy; dairy – tej; neck – nyak; throat – torok; thickle – csikl(and/ó); láb – leg; hair – haj and szőr; heat – hő; some – számos; many – mennyi(ség); bowel – bél; leak – luk, lik and lék; tap – csap; tube – cső, csöve; ant – hangya; dance – tánc; beach – bükk; stall – istálló; soaren (OE) – szárny/szállni; moss – moha; rock – rög; field – föld, shower – zápor; rip – rep(ed/eszt); curve – görbe, körbe; pair – pár; mode – mód; name – név; rod – rúd; rot – roth(ad/aszt); feel – vél; red – rőt [outdated]; wart – var; living – lévén (‘for having been’); port – part (‘shore’); my baby/rose – babám/rózsám; walk – ballag; wanderer – vándor; waste – veszt (‘lose’); waste land – puszta; bay – pej; rest – rest; hangs around aimlessly, lazily – léz+eng; circling – kering (the –eng or –ing is a frequentative suffix as –ing in the English); at home – otthon (“there+ homeland/where”); bubble – buborék, eat – ét; ate – ett(e).

Further pairs: loose – laza; smooth – simít; rust – rozsda; brownish – barnás; whitish – fejéres (now “fehéres”), fair – fejér (‘white’); marred – mart (‘corroded’); flow – foly-; in+fluence – be+folyás; hear – hír (‘news, something that you hear’); desk – deszka (‘board’); table – tábla (‘blackboard’); plank – palánk; lath – léc; rasper – ráspoly; mortar – malter; cup – kupa; bee – méh; vax – viksz, vijaszk (dialectal); ox – ökör [Turkish “öküz”]; yoke – iga [hence le+igáz: down+yokes]; stock – asztag, osztag; stick – ösztöke or isztike; string – istráng; band – pánt; cemetery – temető; storm – ostrom (Sturm in German); bug – bogár; bush – bozót; swamp – zsombék; ladder – létra; coat – kabát; cart – kordé; rice – rizs; baker – pék; fine slice – finom szelet; garden – kert;  high – hegy; valley – völgy; bore-hole – fúró-lyuk; point – pont; party – part; lock – lakat; seat – szék; salt – só; fresh – friss; wild – vad; majestic – magasztos; knob – gomb, gömb, gomba (spheric dorknob, ball-shaped mushroom); silk – selyem; rim or berm – perem, karima; motion – moz-; fear – fél; pain – fáj(ni), bán; hurt – sért; anger – inger; angry – ingerült; toss – tasz(ít), toszogat; press – prés; bit – pici; itsi-bitsi – ici-pici; data – adat; a chimneysweeper’s house – a kéményseprő háza; cock – kakas; chick – csirke, tik (dialectal); cook – kukta; linen – len; wrong – rong(ál); coach – kocsi [from Kócs, or from the Chinese kao-chi as cow-wagon]; pastor – pásztor; widow – özvegy; orphan – árván and árva; young (leaf or branch) – zsenge, gyönge; pence – pénz; link – lánc; wrinkle – ráncol; soul – szél (‘wind,’ similar in German); rank – rang; catkin – gyékény; acwencen (Freeborn, 1992: 127) – Aquincum in Pannonia (?); vault – bolt; all day – álló nap; pick – fog; prison – börtön; shingle –zsindely; query – kérdés; search – keres; trunk – tönk/rönk; thick – vas+tag (‘iron+limb/member’); grass – gaz (‘weed’); finch – pinty; moss – moha; fern – páfrány; pine+tops (‘pinecone,’ in dialect) – fenyő-toboz. The names of the spinach, radish, mustard, lily, rose, tulip, poppy, marjoram, and saffron may seem modern borrowings. The –d suffix of the past tense is –t or –tt in Hungarian.

“The word ‘bow-wow’ is certainly transparent so far as modern English is concerned, but no other language uses the same term” (Lord, 1966: 216).Let us addthe Hungarian “vau-vau.”

We apologize for all these, but it is impossible to find a book comparing the English and the Hungarian languages. Their prehistoric contacts may have taken place in Pannonia. Perhaps the place-names Törtel (“Turtle” that may relate to the Hungarian word “tartály” as “container”), Epöl (“Apple”), and Érd (“Earth”) hadEnglish origins. Many creeks are named “Séd” to the north of Lake Balaton, without any meaning. They would make sense if a speaker of an ancient English talked to the newcomer Scythians, “let’s go to the shade!” Most creeks have some trees.

Many OE words have Hungarian pairs: sceat=süt, sceat=siet, fangen=fogni, searu=szer, scufan=zsúfol, bealu=bal, scieran=sérül, byndel=pántlika, and Þweran=csavarni (Blakeley, 1970)

Here we make a little observation. If the Hungarian word for “thick” is related somehow to the Germanic form (“thick” in English), it may not mean a recent borrowing. We can find this difficult Magyar word “vastag” in the North American Micmac language as “pasteg,” in its original archaic form. The ancestors of the Micmac tribe must have separated from the ancestors of the Magyars many millennia ago. But returning to the English-Magyar comparison, there are three verbs in imperative that match perfectly, with a slight semantic shift: add – add; wedd – vedd [i.e.”vedd el” means, “take away”=marry her]; and hark – hallga (“hallgat”) means “listen” and “do not speak” in Hungarian, It is the frequentative form of the verb “hear.” It makes sense, for if we want to hear somebody’s long report, we cannot speak. Another interesting word is “thief,” described as “push+butter.” That is, one of their ancestors slowly kept pushing away some butter (probably in a cup), in order to steal it eventually. “Tomorrow” is “where?+day” in Hungarian. (They have the same word for “sun” and “day.”) The word for silver (“ez+üst”) is strange, too: it means, “This (is a) cauldron!” Maybe it was an amazed exclamation of the person who had received it as a gift. ‘To cheat’ is expressed by the words “be+csap” that corresponds to “in+tap.” “Csap” originally meant both a wooden cork [see “csapra ver”] of a wine-barrel, and the verb to hit. (“Csapott” corresponds to “chopped.”) Thus, the cheating was to open a barrel’s tap by hitting it inwards, instead of pulling it out. Another example is the word “test+vér” (“body”+”blood”), with the meaning “sibling” (i.e., brother or sister). The Spanish ‘capacitado’ is ’képesített’ in Hungarian (capacitated), referring to someone that “has been given the picture.” 

The Hungarian and the English do not have genders for their nouns and adjectives. The Hungarians forms most of their words by gluing a directional prefix to the root: fel-tesz (up+does = suppose); ki-hal (out+die/fish = die out); el-temet (away+bury; be-tét (in+set). Another feature is the compound nature of many words, revealing the fusion of two major vocabularies: had+sereg (‘army’); sírás+rívás (‘weeping’); éh+ínség (‘famine’) or bú+bánat (‘sadness’). 

The Magyar dialects show a wide variety, indicating relations with other languages. An example is the word “spark.” The notion shall be widened: a little hot and burning thing coming out from a fire. Four variants are the most typical: szikra [see Slavic “izkra”]; sziporka [see English “spark,” its verb is “sziporkáz”=”sparks.” The Hungarians do not like several consonants without wovels, like the Slovak “zmrzlina” that is, “ice cream”]; parázs [as the Spanish “brasa,” a live coal that does not fly out]; and finally pernye or pörnye [maybe related to “burnt”] that is flying out from the fire but it is not red-hot anymore, rather like ashes. It is intriguing that the Magyar notion (unszol and noszogat or nosza!) for “to urge” has German (“uns”) and Portuguese (“nossa”) parallels, both for urging a group that “now it is our turn!” Two Magyar dialects call a red-black flat bug as “the little cow of (little) God.” It is “bozh’ya korovka” in Russian, “vaquilla de Dios” in Spanish, and “la vache de la Vierge” in French. Also refer to Lord (1971: 217). Also, the Magyars have over 100 (often slightly different) dialectal forms for the sunflower, so their language is not “monolithic” as Mr. Browning claimed. It does not mean either that all the four forms of the “spark” are recent borrowings from other European languages. We have a natural inclination to accept many words as new borrowings, if we cannot find them in our Latin dictionary. A sample for this situation is a Magyar variant for “anchor,” called “vas+macska” (“iron+cat”). The Magyars have not been famous mariners, so once I thought that the funny name was just a new slang. I was the most surpised when it stuck my eyes in the dictionary of Vrančić, printed in 1595. Thus, four centuries ago, half of the Hungarians probably called it “horgony” and in the other half of the country it was “vasmacska.”

With a broadened horizon, I started to study the Egyptian language, of which a linguist wrote, “a typical African language.” In a few days I was able to mark down dozens of Egyptian words that had counterparts in Spanish, English, German, or Hungarian. How can a typical African language be a mixture of European languages? As for the Magyar part, I was glad to find a common source for my word “mortar” and “sadness” in the Old Egyptian. The latter word is “buban” in Egyptian, and “bubanat” in Hungarian, clearly a compound word from the roots “bú” and “bán,” both meaning sadness, pain, or remorse. Thus, my earlier opinion that this word was only 1100 years old in my language as a result of combined Magyar and Kabar words became invalid. The combined form had already existed several millennia ago in the Egyptian language.

The Magyar conquerors in the Carpathian Basin in 892 likely found Bulgarians, Slovaks, Avars, Croatians, Franks (mainly in western Transdanubia), Székelys, and perhaps Germans (at least in Transylvania, Siebenbürgen). They must have found Celtic fragments as well, mainly in Transylvania, and Anonymus remembers the Kozars there, in the mountains of Bihar.

A thorough analysis of the Székely (Siculi) language would be extremely interesting. I spent years on it, based on the several volumes of the “Erdélyi Magyar Szótörténeti Tár.” Their old literature (Kelemen Mikes, Miklós Bethlen, Balázs Orbán, Kriza, etc.) was very helpful. Perhaps the Siculi was an ancient tribe that may have came in the remote past from Sagalassos (now S.W. Turkey), with the ancestors of the denominators of Sicily, the Sekeles nation. Their language may have been Trojan, or proto-Romance. The modern Székely dialects have kept many words that are cognates with their Spanish and Italian counterparts. For example, the word “… times” is “vessen” or “versen,” like the Spanish “vez.” A vehicle to carry the plow is ”kabala” in the Székely language, resembling the Spanish “cavallo” or the Frech “cheval.” They called the airájer.” Their geographical names listed by Orbán include many that have Spanish counterparts, like “Rána-patak” (“Rana creek”), or “Ocs-falva,” the latter village associated with the number eight (“ocho” in Spanish, indeed). “Rana” means “frog” in Spanish, a matching name for a creek. The word “molina” for a mill was widely used in Transylvania centuries ago. The old sources could provide an immense help for a linguist undertaking a systematic scholarly linguistic research. A unique record was passed to my by the late Vancouver veterinarian Zoltán Nagy, remembering that in his birthplace, Magyar-halmágy in Transylvania, the persons showed the eggs by telling, “é monyos” (“these are eggs”). That must have been the last village in Hungary where around World War I the plural suffix was –s, just like in Spanish or English.

The tradition calls Transsylvania as “Tündér-ország,” a country of fairies. It may refer to the remnants Irish-Scottish or Kymmer population, perhaps settling there around 500 BC with the Scythians. Many Transyvanian and Magyar words have Irish-Celtic roots, for example the  “káboszta” (“cabbage”) in dialect “Y” (“gabaiste” in Irish), or gúnya (“clothing”) that is “guna.”

Using Swadesh’s 8% threshold of Swadesh for the Finno-Ugrian languages, this sensitive indicator shows that something is wrong. The Finnish-Hungarian lexical similarity is c. 5%, the Finnish-English is 16%, the Estonian-English is 15.1%, and the Finnish-Estonian is 68.1%.

This book cannot dwell much longer on linguistics, for Robinson Crusoe is waiting for us impatiently in the next chapter. However, perhaps this is the proper paragraph where we could make a new proposal for the more courageous researchers: certain seemingly unrelated notions show strong semantic ties with each other. Thus, “anchor” and “anger” seem related in both English and Hungarian (that could be explained by a Polynesian legend about an angry sea-god caught by a fisherman accidentally). Also, the notions of “red” and “dragon” seem related (see the Baltic languages and Revelation of John), or “seven” and “head” are related (seven cities, seven heads of the dragon, or seven stars). The OE heafod, the German Haupt, the Latin sept, the Greek hepta, the English head and the Hungarian hét (7) could belong to the same root.

The notions of “blood” and “truth” (or “true”) show something in common in many languages of the world. The Welsh “gonest” [see “honest”] and “gwir” coupled with the Finno-Ugrian “ver,” with the Spanish “vero,” and the English “very.” Or, the Tibetan “traa,” the Fijian “dra,” the Malay-Philippine “dara(h), the Kikuyu “tharigi;” the Sinhalese “haba” and the Tolo (Melanesian) “habu;” the Mungkan “kan-kanam” and the Turkish “kan;” the Hungarian “igazi” (true, real) and the Zulu “igazi.” A letter by letter, or, sound by sound agreement in long words all over the globe, with related meanings is more than strange, particularly between the languages of a Central Asian and a Southwestern African nation. Let alone that an archaic Hungarian word, “ingovány” for “swamp” exists with the same meaning and in the same form (“inkovane”) in a major Afican language (either in Zulu or Kikuyu, I do not have those notes anymore). Another African language has the Magyar word “szakadék” for “ravine,” in almost identical form. (Although I was not surprised to find the Magyar words for “avalanche” and “queen” in a Baltic language, for that can be late historical contact. Africa is different. Yet, it is unlikely that an African tribe would have borrowed words for ravine or swamp from a Hungarian hunter or discoverer (like László Magyar who lived and married in Angola 150 years ago).

This possiblity is like the mistery of the Japanese word “arigato.” It clearly reminds us to the Portuguese “obrigado” (“thank you” in English). Probably the Portuguese were the first Europeans in Japan, and perhaps the Japanese people adopted their greetings. A Japanese linguist could answer this question, by finding the earliest occurrence of the word “arigato” in their literature. Since the Japanese pays extreme attention to proper greetings, addressing and ranks, I have difficulty to accept it as a recent Japanese borrowing. An additional detail is that the Japanese word “katana” (a famous type of sword) exists in Hungarian as “katona,” meaning a soldier or swordsman. (The Hungarian word for sword is “kard” that comes from a Persian word for “knife.”). Let us note here that the North American Ojibje language calls the blood “misque.” Therefore, our word ”mosquito” may have its root in America [please do not ask me how], or at least a relative. (Perhaps the Latin “musca” originally referred to a blood-sucking species of the flies in an ancient place of contact.) In order to conclude this paragraph, the last observation refers to the close relationship between the notions “eye” and “face.” If you associate these two, you get huge areas covered with the corresponding cognates, stretching over oceans without explanation, except if you give an allowance for the diffusionists. (We do not refer to the story about the Tower of Babel when the nations first realized the differences of their languages.)

There will come an age in linguistics when the collection, collation and comparison of resembling forms from the basic vocabularies will begin systematically, without watching the continents’ limits anxiously. Thus, the German “Schlange,” the Hungarian “sallang,” and the Philippine “silangan” will finally end up side by side. The English words “plot,” “blot,” “blood” and ”flood” will be placed in a single group with the Spanish word “plata” and with the Magyar “fullad;” the English words“bird,” “birth,” and “burden” will form another group, and so on.

That will be the complete understanding that Sir Browning referred to.

Above: The similarities between the thirty-eight Hungarian dialects in the Carpathian Basin, expressed in %. Please refer to the 38 areas shown on the map below.
Legend to the dialect map above: the small circles represent the 395 villages where the linguists of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences collected thousands of dialectal words since 1949. (See the "Magyar Nyelvjarasok Atlasza" published in Budapest in or after 1969, in six loose-leaf volumes.) The solid lines are enclosing the core areas of the 38 Hungarian dialects marked by the letters of the Hungarian alphabet from A to Y. Within those solid lines, at least 80 out of 100 words (80%) of each village match the forms of the same word used in at least one other village within the same core area. The dashed outlines indicate a lower degree of correlation, more or less 40-50%, without any given value in percentages. The linguistic survey has not included the several Hungarian "Csángó" (pron. Chango) villages on the eastern slopes of the Carpathian Mountains.
"Oratio Dominica" (Lord's Prayer) and the "Credo" in old Hungarian runic script from a manuscript found in Hamburg. The text starts in the top right corner and reads to the left as: First line: "M I A Ty A N K K I V A Gy M E Ny E G- Second line: B E N Sz E N T E L T E S S E K M E G A Z Finally the third line: A Z T E N E V E D J Ö J J Ö N E L A Z T E ..." In modern Hungarian: Mi Atyánk ki vagy menyegben, szenteltessék meg a(z az) Te neved, jöjjön el a(z) Te ... Note: the repetition of the word "az" seems to be an error. (Source: the book entitled "Rovas es rovasiras" by Gyula SEBESTYÉN.)
Nine versions of the Székely nation's runic alphabet in the manuscript of Marosvásárhely.
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