Toltec - Chichimec chronology

The end of the Fourth Sun in the Toltec–Chichimec tradition: a major solar eclipse in Tula (Hidalgo State) on 30 March A.D. 1131, at 6:10 in local time, 3°52’23” above the horizon. In that hour, the evil Tecpoyotl killed the remnants of Tula’s population, sacrificing them to the Sun. This ended the last age, a period of 682 years.
The end of the Second Sun in the Toltec tradition: a solar eclipse in Tula (Hidalgo State) on 21 February 180 BC. The eclipsed Sun, at 5:54 p.m. in local time, stood around 1.2 degrees above the horizon. A hurricane in those days meant the effective end of their second age that lasted for 530 years. This interval is depicted by ten large and ten small circles in the Codex Vaticanus 3738.
This illustration was taken from the book of Prescott about the Aztecs (page 85 of the Barcelona edition). He must have misunderstood a multicolour drawing in the book of Alexander von Humboldt. The four fragments seem to be damaged pages of a version of the Codex Vaticanus 3738. The latter is colorful but four alleged bas-reliefs would have lost their colours after 8 centuries. The pineapple-like circles represent 52 years each while the small circles mean years. These are not the four seasons but the four ages of the Toltecs in Zoltan A. Simon's interpretation. Please refer to the chronological table below.

TOLTEC-CHICHIMEC CHRONOLOGY (Zoltan A. Simon, Red Deer, 2013)

 

Dates

[approximate]

Event, or name of ruler

(Toltec or Chichimec)

Notes and details

Source

6 August 1240 BC

The beginning of the First Sun of the Toltecs [Year 10 Reed in Caso]

A total eclipse of the sun in Tula, c. 45 degrees above the horizon

Codex Vaticanus 3738 (see the FAMSI web site)

1240–713 BC

An interval of 528 years

 

Codex Vaticanus 3738 (see the FAMSI web site)

28 September 713 BC

The end of the First Sun of the Toltecs. The beginning of the Second Sun [Year 5 Reed in Caso]

A solar eclipse in Tula, c. 1.3 degrees above the horizon, with a magnitude of 71.4%

Codex Vaticanus 3738 (see the FAMSI web site)

713 – 180 BC

An interval of 530 years

 

Codex Vaticanus 3738 (see the FAMSI web site)

21 February 180 BC

The end of the Second Sun of the Toltecs. The beginning of the Third Sun [Year 4 Reed in Caso]

A solar eclipse in Tula, c. 1.2 degrees above the horizon, with a magnitude of 36%

Codex Vaticanus 3738 (see the FAMSI web site)

180 BC to

AD 450 

An interval of 628 years

 

Codex Vaticanus 3738 (see the FAMSI web site)

27 April 450

The end of the Third Sun of the Toltecs. Beginning of the fourth sun. [Year 10 House in Caso]

A solar eclipse in Tula, c. X degrees above the horizon, with a magnitude of 92%

Codex Vaticanus 3738 (see the FAMSI web site)

450 – 1131

An interval of 682 years

 

Codex Vaticanus 3738 (see the FAMSI web site)

1046

Death of Tlilcoatzin (Toltec king)

In a year 9 Rabbit; [A.D. 994, according to Bierhorst]

Codex Chimalpopoca (Bierhorst 1992, 38)

1064

Huemac, the last Toltec king, sacrificed a man at Cincoc. Dispersion

In a year 1 Flint; [A.D. 1064

in Bierhorst]

Codex Chimalpopoca (Bierhorst 1992, 41)

1070

Great famine. The human sacrifices began in masses

In a year 7 Rabbit; [A.D. 1018

in Bierhorst]

Codex Chimalpopoca (Bierhorst 1992, 38-39)

1070

Destruction of the Toltec Empire

Death of Huemac, the last Toltec king [1070 in Bierhorst]

Codex Chimalpopoca (Bierhorst 1992, 42); Clavigero 1806: 118 assumed A.D. 1052.  

1070-1080

Tollan is deserted for eleven years;

or, only for five [see Ixtlilxochitl?]

A gap of eleven years. Or, a gap of five years [1070-1075]

See below

1080

Arrival of the first Chichimecs, under Xolotl, eleven years after the destruction of the Toltecs

This interval above should correctly refer to the eleventh year

Clavigero [YEAR?], p. 90, based on Torquemada

1080-1120

Xolotl ruled for more than 40 years. He died in an advanced age.

He was born in c. 1040 and died in c. 1120, maybe at the age of 80.

Clavigero ???

1103

The Chalca left Xicco so 1116 or 1168 for their leaving Aztlan is incorrect

In a year 1 Reed; [A.D. 1051

in Bierhorst] CHECK!!

Codex Chimalpopoca (Bierhorst 1992, 39)

1120-1152

Nopaltzin ruled for 32 years

He was born in c. 1070, died c. 1152

 

30 March  1131

This event was the end of the Fourth Sun for the remnants of the Tolteca-Chichimeca population of Tula.

Solar eclipse in Tula at c. 3.9 degrees above the horizon, with a magnitude of 95%.

Texpayotl and the Mexica killed practically every Chichimec in Tula, sacrificing them for the sun during a solar eclipse.

c. 1150

Accession of king Tezozomoc (I), son of Acolhuatzin

 

[Z. A. Simon’s assumption]

1181

Death of Tezozomoc (I)

In the same year the Mexica sacrificed Copil

Codex Mexicanus (and Codex Aubin?)

1152-1188

Tlotzin, Nopaltzin’s son, ruled for 36 years; born in c. 1110, died c. 1188

Tlotzin was a teenage boy in 1121.

Clavigero?

1188-1247

Quinatzin the Elder ruled for 60 years. He was born in c. 1175, died c. 1247

His wife was Chimalxoch, sister of Huitzilihuitl I. Quinatzin`s son, Tlatzanatztoc [‘Rattling of the Reeds’] was born in 1243]

For the events and the years 1240-1247 refer to Bierhorst  1992, 48 and 55

Note: As for the four ageas or intervals, each of the large, pineapple-shaped circles represent 52 years (not 400) while the small circles actual years. The early European archaeologists or historians may have consulted about the codex with a Mayan informant that assumed the record - the large circles - as expressed in Maya ages or baktuns. Statistically is very unlikely that all the four ages consisted of a certain number of baktuns (almost 400 years each) while none of them contained any katun (of almost 20 years).

 

  

COMPARISON OF SEVEN MEXICAN CHRONOLOGIES – SEE THE CODEX MEXICANUS SEPARATELY

 

 

Codex Aubin

Tira de la peregrinación

(Codex Boturini)

Codex Vaticanus A (3738)

Codex Telleriano-Remensis

Codex Chimalpopoca

(Bierhorst 1992)

Shown as ‘B.’ below

 

Codex Ramírez

Sigüenza Map

(itinerary history)

 

 

 

 

Beginning of the Fifth Sun: a total eclipse in Aztlan in a year 13-Reed [on August 31, AD 1011]

Deluge in a year

1 Rabbit, perhaps

AD 986 or 934

 

 

 

 

 

At the end of the fourth Sun, there was water for 52 years; maybe from August 1011 to March 1064. (Bier- horst 1992, 143.)

1116 or 1064 (?)

130 years after the deluge, 40 bands of the Mexica leave Azcla (Aztlan) and [Teo]Colhuacan

in a year 1 Flint

 

1064  They leave Aztlan – Tonanicacan

(Year 1 Flint, pp. 3-4)

1064  They leave Aztlan

(Year 1 Flint, Folio 1)

[Missing]

[Missing]

They left Aztlan in a year 1 Flint (Bier-horst 1992, 158)

1064  [assumed date]: Migration begins, on the road

 

1064  Fallen tree [in Tamoanchan that was east of the Mississippi River, maybe in Florida]

 

 

1065-1076 and 1077-1091

[Teo]Co(hu)atepetl

=[Divine] Snake Hill [the Great Serpent Mound in Ohio]

 

(12+15 years, pp. 6-7)

1064  The stars appeared in the sky at Tamoanchan [in Florida; the solar eclipse of 19 April 1064]

 

1065  Omoslacatl? (hill of the weeping man) (Folio 5)

 

1065-1092  [Divine or Teo]Coatepec;

1091  New Fire

(28 years, Folios 5-6)

 

 

1091  They leave Chicomoztoc (seven caves with seven tribes) in a year 1 Reed; also a New Fire ceremony

(Folio 66v)

 

1092  Matepetl

1093  Cactepetl

 

(Folio 66v)

 

 

 

[Missing page]

1090  The Mexitin set out from Aztlan [Aztalan in Ohio?];

(Bierhorst 1992, 43)

The dates of their arrivals are shown below.

 

1091  Cuahuitlicacan

 

1095  Tepetlimona-

miquiyan (where mountains come together)

1065-1066  Between two lofty mountains

 

1067  Quausticaca (Cuahuitlicacan, a valley of pine trees)

 

1068-1076  Chicom-  oztoc (seven caves); They laid the place waste when leaving; Tlacuxquin, Mança-moyagual and Mina-queciguatle were born.

 

 

1091  Tying of the years at

Colhuacan (curved mountain): the

ancestors of fifteen chiefs begin their journey

 

 

1094-1100  Tezuac-tepetl, Ayavalulco &

Tonanicaca, Culhua-can, Puchutla, Toto-tepetl. Huitzilo-pochtli is leader

(7 years, Folio 67r)

 

1101-1110  Tlacavaçal-tepetl, Maxungte(?), Tentutepetl, Pantepetl; from Mechuaca to Tlatoltepetl

(10 years, Folio 67v)

 

1111-1120  hunting:

Tlacaxupantepetl, Huehuetepetl, Xilo-tepetl, Tzompango, Coacalco, Ecatepetl

(10 years, Folio 68r)

1094-1100  Tezuac-tepetl, Ayavalulco &

Tonanicaca, Culhua-can, Puchutla, Toto-tepetl. Huitzilo-pochtli is leader

(7 years, Folio 25r)

 

1101-1110  Tlacavaçal-tepetl, Maxungte(?), Tentutepetl, Pantepetl; from Michoacan to Tlatoltepetl

(10 years, Folio 25v)

 

1111-1120  hunting:

Tlacaxupantepetl, Huehuetepetl, Xilo-tepetl, Tzompango, Coacalco, Ecatepetl

(10 years, Folio 26r)

1101  Tepetlmaxaliu-hyan (Where Mountains Divide: maybe the Great Continental Divide in the Rocky    Mountains)

 

 

 

1110  Coatlyayauhcan

 

 

1114  Zacatepec (grass hill)

 

 

1118  Tematlahuacalco

 

1122  Coatepec [Coatepetl]

1077-1079  Cuatlicamat = Coatli-camac (Coatepec)

 

1080-1082  Matlauacala

1083-1087  In an Otomi land

 

1088-1097  [Teo?] Coatepec where Huitzilopochtli was

born, after four years, in 1091. Or,

he appeared as an adult. (Maybe his avatar, an usurper.)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1092-1111  Tollan or Tula (reeds)

(20 years, page 8)

 

1093-1111   Tollan or Michoacan? (reeds and fish in a lake)

(19 years,  Folio 7)

 

1121-1130 Coatepetl,

Xochitepetl, Tezcuco [Tetzcoco], battles

(10 years, Folio 68v)

 

1121-1130 Coatepetl,

Xochitepetl, Tezcuco [Tetzcoco], battles

(10 years, Folio 26v)

1132  Chimalcotitlan

 

1136  [missing name,

maybe Cuauhtitlan]

 

1146  Tollan (Tula)

1098-1100  Chimal-

coque (Chimakoquc)

 

1101-1103  Ensicox

[“en Xicoc?”]

1104-1115  Tlemaco near Tula [Tollan]

1104  (water

pot with bird); Tying 13 years, temple burnt.

A version gives

Aztlan by error

1112-1122  Atlitlayacyan (waterfall)

(11 years, page 9A)

1112-1121  Atlitlayacyan (waterfall)

(10 years, Folio 8)

1131-1140  Pantepetl, Ayavalulco, Tezcatepetl, etc.: battles

(10 years, Folio 69r)

1131-1140  Pantepetl, Ayavalulco, Tezcatepetl, etc.: battles

(10 years, Folio 27r)

1150  Atlitlalaquiyan,

Tequixquiac, Apazco,

Citlaltepec

(Bierhorst 1992, 47)

[Duran, p. 28 agrees with many of these.]

An old lady selling banners (Bierhorst 1992, 156; also  Graulich 1997, 234)

1116-1117  (A)tlitla-

laquian

 

1118-31  Tula/Tollan

 

1122  An old lady starts selling banners for men to sacrifice.

Tecpoyotl kills all of

the Chichimecs of

 

Acahuala cave with tying 13 years (1117?)

 

1118-1127

Zincotlan

(cooking corn)

1130  Tying of 13 years

1123-1127  Tlemaco (incense burner)

(5 years, page 9B)

1122-1126  Tlemaco (incense burner)

(5 years, Folios 8-9)

 

 

 

 

Tula during the solar eclipse of 30 March 1131 (m=94.7%)

? -1137

Tocolco (humiliation)

1128-1131  Atotonilco (flowing water)

(4 years, page 10A)

1127-1131  Atotonilco (hot water pot)

(5 years, Folio 9)    

 

 

 

1131  Atotoniltengo

 

1132-1135

Tecuzquiciac or Tequizquiac (4 years)

 

1138-1142

Oztotlan (5)

(cave place)

1132-1143  Apazco,

now Apaxco (bent mountain with full clay vessel)

(12 years, page 10B)

1132-1143  Apazco or Apaxco (place where the water drains)

(12 years, Folios 9-10)

1141-1150  Coatepetl,

Teçontepetl, Piazcontepetl (battles)

(10 years, Folio 69v)

1141-1150  Coatepetl,

Teçontepetl, Piazcontepetl (battles)

(10 years, Folio 27v)

 

 

1136-1143 (?)

Apazco (x years)

1143  Tying of the years;

Mizquiahuala

 

1143-1157

(Mt.) Calpan

 

1144-1147  Tzompanco or Zumpango (skull rack)

(4 years, page 11A)

 

1144-1147  Tzompanco (skull rack)

(4 years, Folio 10)

 

 

 

1144-1147  Tzom-  panco. Tlacizcal Potonqui sacrificed. Tlahuiz-potonca-tzin was the father[-in-law] of Huitzilihuitl the Elder. See Bierhorst 1992, 48]

1158-1162

Tetepanco (5)

 

1163-1172

Oxitipan (10), south of

Ciuadad Valles

1148-1151  Atzcapotzalco (ant-hill)

(4 years, page 11B)

1148-1151  Atzcapotzalco (ant-hill)

(4 years, Folio 11)

1151-1160  Coaonepantepetl (?),

Texcala (Tlascala), Yxcuepaliztepetl, Vixa(ch)tit(l)an (battles)

(10 years, Folio 70r)

1151-1160  Coaonepantepetl (?),

Texcala (Tlascala), Yxcuepaliztepetl, Vixa(ch)tit(l)an (battles)

(10 years, Folio 28r)

 

 

1155  Cuauhtitlan

 

1155-64  Citlaltepec and Tzompanco, for ten years

1148-1154  Tlilac (7 years)

1155  Qua(uh)titlan

 

1151/2  Huitzilihuitl the Elder=Humming- bird Feather ‘0’ was born in Tizayocan while they were trekking  between Tzompango and Tolpetlac. [See Clavigero YEAR; also  Ramirez 2001, 259]

1173-1176

Teotzapotlan

(place of the divine zapote fruits, 4 years,

now Zaachila)

 

1177-1180

Ilhuacatepec:

Sky darkened

[Solar eclipse of 99% magni-tude on 31

March 1177]

1152-1155  Acalhuacan (canoe+water)

(4 years, page 12A)

1152-1155  Acalhuacan (canoe with paddle; canoe place)

(4 years, Folio 11)

 

 

[1171: Achitometl inaugurated in Colhuacan. He died in 1185. Refer to Bierhorst 1992, 45.]

 

 

1156  Ecatepec

1181-1182

Papantla (big- leaved grass) [in Vercruz]

1183-1187

Tzompanco

1156-1159  Ehecatepec (wind hill)

(4 years, page 12B)

1156-1159  Ecatepec or Ehecatepec (wind hill)

(4 years, Folio 12)

 

 

1165  Ecatepec (wind hill)

1157  Nepopoalco or Nepohualco: Census. (Nahualtzin, Tenatzin and Chiautototl move to Malinalco)

1188-1191

Apazco

 

1192-1193

Atlitlalacyan

1160-1167

Tolpetlac (rush mat place)

(8 years, page 13A)

1160-1167

Tolpetlac (reed mat place)

(8 years, Folios 12-13)

1161-1170  A major battle, many severed bodies and limbs

(10 years, Folio 70v)

1161-1170  A major battle at Tequepa-yuca (Tecpayocan); severed bodies and limbs

(10 years, Folio 28v)

1172  Tolpetlac

 

1176  Chiquiuhtepe-tlapan Tecpayocan

 

Mount Tlatlatevique

near Chimalpa

 

1168-1171 (?)  Cuatitlan for 4 years

1193-1195

[3 years that should be rather two]

Quauhtitlan

(eagle rock)

1168-1187 Cohuatitlan (snake stone place)

(20 years, pp. 13B–14A)

1168-1187  Cohuatitlan (snake Stone place)

(20 years, Folios 13-14)

 

Men come from Chalco to an agave plantation and make pulque between 1172 and 1187

1171-1190  Copil, or two persons, are stoned or sacrificed in a lake (or maybe at Ayahualulco). A king Tezozomoc (“Lava Face”) of Atzcapotzalco was born/acceeded (?)

(20 years, 71r)

 

 

[Missing pages here:

a gap of 110+52 years, from 4 Reed to 9 Flint, that is between A.D. 1171 and 1332.] 

 

 

1172 (?)  Visachichitlan (now the suburb of Santiago)

 

Teopulco: census

 

(Huitzilihuitl I

leaves them

in 1194)

 

 

1195  Tying

the years

1195-1201 (?)

Xaltocan (7)

1188-1191

Huixachtitlan or Vixachtitlan

(acacia or mimosa on the rock)

(4 years, page 14B) 

1188-1191

Huixachtitlan (little plant, apparently mimosa, on a hill)

 (4 years, Folio 14)

1191-1194  During the reign of Coatzin (?), or Snake Lord, the Mexica lost their [first] battle at Chapultepec (1194)

(4 years, Folio 71v)

 

 

Tenayucan (where

Tepayuca or Tehayuco died)

 

Tlotzin is ruling here

 

 

 

1201  Chalco

(precious stones)

 

1192-1195  Tecpayocan (flint knife place)

(4 years, page 15A)

1195: Battle and New Fire.

(Tecpatzin, Huitzilihuitzin,

Neyelmatl, Intetepantzin)

 

1192-1195  Tecpayocan (flint knife hill): Battle in 1195: Brick Wall, Hummingbird Feather ‘0’ and Flint Knife (Tecpatzin) are shown (died?).

(4 years, Folio 14)

 

 

 

 

 

[Note: “Brick Wall” dies in 1220 in the Codex Mexicanus]

1186 Tepeyacac

1172-1180 (?)

Tepexaquilla

(9 years)

 

 

1181-1184 (?)

A hot water place, now El Peñolcillo

(4 years)

Chapultepec

1202 Pantitlan

(flag rock)

 

1202-1203

Tolpetlac (2)

1203  Epco-  huac (burning snake place)

1204-1205

Quauhtepec

 

1196-1199  Pantitlan (flag rock place)

(4 years, page 15B) 

 

1196-1199  Pantitlan

(a weak or sick man is shown in 1199).

(4 years, Folio 15)

 

 

 

Tlachetongo (Tluchitongo)

 

Aqualcomaz (near

the Tinguez or Marketplace)

 

[1206-1213]

Chicomoztoc

[seven caves,

apparently a wrong entry]

1200-1207 Amalinalpan (wet hay flag)

They are vassals of Tezozomoctli (shown with a red bird as a head ornament) of Atzcapotzalco

(8 years, page 16A)

1200-1207 Amalinalpan: Atl-malinalli (water hay – dead grass – flag place): an early ruler of Atzcapotzalco, named “volcanic rock face” (Tezozo-moctli?),  depicted

at 1201 or 1207

(8 yrs., Folios 15-16)

 

[One or two folios – two or four pages – are missing from this codex covering the period between A.D. 1195 and 1246, from year 2 Reed to 1 Rabbit.]

[Note here from the Codex Mexicanus: Tezozomoc and Copil shown near each other in a year 1 House: A.D. 1181]

1138: The Tlaca-huan Chalca arrives to Xicco

(Bierhorst 1992, 72)

Vetetlan

Ixocan (which is the road of Cuyacan)

 

Tenculuacan (a place making salt)

 

Mountain Tepetocan

(near Cuyoacan)

 

Ciaxuhilat (Vichilat or Vchilobusco)

 

1206-1208

Huitzquilocan

(place of thistles)

 

1209-1212

(Pot on a mat and water, for

4 years)

 

 

 

1208-1211  Pantitlan (flag rock place)

(4 years, page 16B) 

 

Pantitlan (flag rock place)

1208-1211

(4 years, Folio 16)

 

 

 

1189  Pantitlan

(flag rock place)

 

 

[Without year]

Then they withdrew to Popotlan Acolna-huac

c. 1184  Culuacan, where the ruler was Achitometl [died in 1185, see Bierhorst 1992, 45]

 

Mount Visachitla near Ixtapalapa

1184-1186 (?)

Quesumalc (3 years)

1213-1216

Xaltepozauh-can (where the sand issues)

 

1217-1220

Cozcacuauhco

(vulture place)

1212-1215 Acolnahuac (water-hand place)

(4 years, page 17A) 

1212-1215 Acolnahuac (smok-ing arm in water)

(4 years, Folios 16-17)

 

 

Popotlan Acolnahuac (see above)

1186?  Capulco

1187  Tacuxcalco: general assembly. Their chiefs: Xinteça, Caley and Escualt.

 

Popotlan  (where straws are bundant)

1216-1219

(4 years, page 17B)

Popotlan [bunch of reed-like plants]

1216-1219

(4 years, Folio 17)

 

 

Popotlan (see above)

1187-1190

Dispersal for 4 years

then all are reunited at Cacaquipa

 

 

1220-1223

Techcatitlan (marble rock for carving)

(4 years, page 18A)

 

A ruler named Tenochtli is shown

at year 2 House.  

 

1220-1223

Techcatitlan (trapeze-shaped object that is tied)

(4 years, Folios 17-18)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

[Note* for the next

column on the right:

he is Tlahuizpoton-catzin in Bierhorst 1992: 48. In another source he is a son of

Nezahualtemocatzin]

Chapultepec where they captured Copil

 

1191-1206

Chapultepec for 15 years: Acipa, son of Çipayia-vichiliutl, son of Tlauizcal Poton-gui*; they chose this latter as their ruler, for 15 years. This  [Huitzilihuitl] had two daughters (Tuzcasuch and Chimalasuch)

1220-1224

Techcatitlan

(stone carving place)

 

1225-1228

Azcaxochic.

(ant flowers)

 

1229-1233

Tepetlapan

(stone mat flag place)

1233  Apan.

(water place)

Atlacuivayan or  Atlacuihuayan (place where water is caught, now Tacubaya)

1224-1227

(4 years, page 18B) 

Atlacuihuayan or Tacubaya (a hand holding a hook-shaped tool or ruling symbol)

1224-1227

(4 years, Folio 18)

 

 

Huitzilihuitl “0” is mentioned as the father of Chimala-xoch (Shield Water Flower), sister of

Huitzilihuitl I

(Bierhorst 1992, 48)

1206-1240

Another 9 + 25 years passed in peace while Huitzilihuitl the Younger governed them

 

1234-1239

Teozomaco

(place of divine apes)

 

 

 

Chapultepec (Grasshopper Hill)

1228-1247

(20 years, pp. 19A – 19B)

 

Chapultepec (grasshopper hill); Lost battle in 1247, then the Aztecs cry while hiding in the reeds.

1228-1247

(20 years, Folios 18-19)

 

 

 

1194  Chapoltepec.

These Mexica had been at Chapoltepec for 47 years, see B. 1992: 53. It fits the period between A.D. 1194 and 1240.

40 years in Chapol-tepec

(Bierhorst 1992,

158)

1240  The people of

Xaltocan captured the two daughters of Huitzilihuitl the Elder. Huitzilihuitl the Younger was captured as well, then executed. The Mexica took refuge among the canebrakes

1240-1243

Chapultepec:

Three men bleeding without heads

and a deer cut

In pieces

(battle); three

families are hiding in the reeds.

 

1247  The Mexica lost a battle at Chapultepec against the Tepaneca and the Colhua; also New Fire ceremony

(Page 19B)

 

 

 

1240  The Mexica lost their [second] battle at Chapulte-pec in a year 8 Flint when King Huitzili-huitl I and his sisters became captives in Colhuacan (Bier-

horst 1992, 47-54)

Coautliquezçi (high priest)  is mentioned

 

 

Achitome(t)l was lord of Culuacan, and Chalchiutlatonac the chieftain

 

1244-1247

Water square

or pool

(Tizaapan or Acocolco?)

 

1247  Tying

of the years

1247? – without year*: Huitzilihuitl I and his sister Chimalaxoch as captives (of Colhuacan?).

(Page 20A)

 

*Note: this event depicted may belong to the previous,

missing, page of the codex, to A.D. 1240.

1247?  Colhuacan: Huitzilihuitl and his sister Chimalaxoch are captured and are taken to its king whose name is a bird with standing feathers. [They were captured in 1240 but the chronicler had no room to depict it previously.]

 

1248-1251  The last

Year shown is 6 Reed

(4 years, Folio 20)

1247-1255  After the battle, Huitzilihuitl (I) the Yonger and his two sisters, all as naked captives, are taken to the king of Colhuacan [Coxcox]. Huitzilihuitl (I) is executed shortly. Chimalaxoch is shown at the left-hand side of the drawing, next to Tuzcaxoch.

 

(9 years, Folio 72r)

 

 

1240-1243  Captivity in Contitlan [Colhuacan] for 4 years.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1243  King  Chalchi-uhtlatonac of Colhuacan sent them against Xochimilco.

 

1240-1265

25 years under the domination of Culhuacan.

 

 

 

 

 

 

1247-1251

Contitlan (5 years; a jar is oppressing a man?)

 

 

1251

A battle is depicted, also a burning temple [maybe that of

Xochimilco?]

Colhuacan (Curved Mountain) and Contitlan

1248-1251

(4 years, page 20B) 

Folio 21 depicts  the ruler of Xochimilco captured and his ear cut off, taken to the “Pheasant King”

[Coxcox]. The Mexica rape the Xochimilcan women in their houses.

 

[Durán refers to king Achitometl whose daughter was flayed. Then the Colhua expelled the Mexica from Tizaapan. The latter retreated to the water.] (1244-1245?)

The Mexica clipped off one ear of each captive in Xochimilco.

1244 or 1245  The Mexica are allowed to settle in Tizaapan (chalk water or white water)

[1243]  While they lived at Tizaapan, ten Mexica were sent against the Xochimilcans. They cut off the ears of eighty Xochimilcans in the war.

1252-1261

A hook-shaped

object (arm?) with corn;

a pyramid

temple is built

(10 years)

1251 ? without year Text: Chimalcoltzintli (?), four persons as prisoners, rowing (?)

(Pages  21-22)

1251 ? without year

The Mexica walk away, holding their knives, while singing or speaking. This is the last scene

(Folio 22)

1256-1283

Tlachco? The Mexica sitting and chatting; a ball court (tlachco) is depicted

(28 years, Folio 72v)

 

1246  The Mexica kept making troubles so the Colhua gave them a battle. (Bier-horst 1992, 55)

 

Tezcatl Teuctli [b. 1243, ruled 1247-1286], son of Chima-laxoch and Quinatzin the Elder (Bierhorst 1992, 48-57)

 

1265  At the end of the aforesaid twenty-five years, the Mexica built a temple in Tizaapan. The Culuacans threw straw and filthy things into it.

1262-1271

A ball court is shown, maybe

they built one.

1272-1281

Cornfields (?)

 

1282-1291

Grey buildings,

a battle in this

period (1273?)

1252  Mexicatzinco (Acatzitzintlan?)                

(1 year, page 23A)

 

 

 

 

1273  The Mexica were expelled. They fled without a battle.

The Mexicans sacrificed a woman called Aventzin.

 

1253-1256  Nexticpac (a man sitting on a gray hill)

(4 years, page 23B)

 

1284-1313 The Mexica is settled in peace.

(30 years, Folio 73r)

 

 

1273 (?)  They fled

to Nextiquipaque by crossing a river.

A woman is

standing, a naked person is lying (bath?)

1257-1258  Iztacalco  (place of the salt house, of smoking “bricks”); Tetzitzillin (a man) is mentioned.

(2 years, page 24A)

 

 

1288 (or 1294)

Two smoking grey buildings are shown,

perhaps the vapor that accompanies

the production of

salt. 

 

 

When those 25 years elapsed they came to Istacalco, then to Mixuacan and later settled in Temazcal-titlan which signifies the suburb of the bath: the suburb of St. Peter and St. Paul

 

1292-1295

Two grey buildings: Te-

mazcaltitlan?

1295  Tying

of the years

[It should be

1299.]

1259  Temazcaltitlan (steam bath stones, built for women after child-birth); Tenochtitlan is (?) mentioned.

(1 year: One Reed, p. 24B)                                      

 

1314-1332  Tenoch-titlan’s foundation while they lived under Colhuacan’s supremacy. Its king

Acamapictli the Elder [1325??-1336] is shown as well. HOLD

(19 years, Folio 73v) 

 

These intervals are listed from year 1 Flint [1064, Aztlan]:

58+40+25+37+40+50 that yield 1314 for the foundation of Tenochtitlan; [1325]

(2 House) is shown (Bierhorst 1992, 158-159)  

 

Tatilulco (Tlatelolco)

 

Coxcoçi [Coxcoxtzin, r. 1300-1324] chief of Culuacan, looked favorably upon the Mexicans. [This is a misplaced remark.]

 

[without year]

 

Ocelopan and two other chiefs are sitting in a group.

 

 

 

The text mentions a year 2 Flint, probably 1260.

(no year, page 25B) 

 

1333-1347  The Mexica burn the temple of Colhuacan in 1347. Its ruler is killed; the young Itzcoatl is shown, maybe born

(15 years, Folio 74r)

1333-1347  The Mexica burn Colhua-can’s temple (1347). Its ruler is killed; the young Itzcoatl is shown, maybe born

(15 years, Folio 29r)

The dates 1385-1399 are incorrect. [From the battle of Chapultepec they were Colhuacan’s subjects for 100 years (“cien años”) as shown in the text, reckoning from 1246.]

[early 1347: the

Mexica burn the temple of Colhuacan]

 

1347-1377

The temple of Colhuacan is waste

for thirty-one years

(Bierhorst 1992, 73)

 

Queen Ilancueitl is sad, she sends new settlers to Colhuacan

(Bierhorst 1992,  73)

Huitzilopochtli ordered them to seek a man of Culuacan in the morning, to sacrifice him, and give him to the sun to eat. Thus, they sacrificed Chichilquautli to the sun on going out; and they named this place Quanmixtlitlan (later Tenochtitlan).

[Solar eclipses were in 1301, 1303, 1311, 1313, and 1318]

 

 

 

 

[without year]

 

Tenochtitlan:

 

Tenoch, Aca-

çitli, ‘Water-mouth’ and Xomimitl are sitting in a second group.

 

[1318-1325] (?)

An eagle is sitting on a prickly pear cactus 

(no year, page 26A)

 

 

 

Queen Ilancueitl:

she died in 1383

(Bierhorst 1992, 74)

1318  Mexico Tenochtitlan got started, only a few straw huts

 

1364-1365  no event

(2 years, page 26B)

 

 

 

 

 

 

1366-1370  no event

(5 years, page 27A)

 

 

 

 

 

 

1371-1375  no event

(5 years, page 27B)

 

 

 

 

 

 

1376 Acamapichtli starts in year 1 Flint;

1376-1385

(10 years, page 28)

 

 

 

1138-1350: after 212 years the Chalca of Xicco withdrew to Chalco (Bierhorst

1992, 72)

 

1350-1403

Acamapichtli was ruler and governor for 54 years

(Bierhorst 1992, 134)

1383-1403 (or 1404)

He was sole ruler for

21 years (Bierhorst

1992, 77-78 and 

Illancueitl, the wife of Acamapichtli, died in the 24th year after Mexico’s foundation.

[This yields 1348/1349 that is only the date of her husband’s arrival.]

Three years earlier [1347]  the Mexicans made war upon the people of Culuacan and burnt their temple. [In the next year some solar phenomenon]

 

1386-1395

Acamapichtli dies in

one of these years

(10 years, page 29)

 

 

 

1403

Acamapichtli died

1348 July 27 [minor

solar eclipse that makes the enemy’s canoes arrive to the wrong town]

 

1396  Huitzilihuitl (II) begins his reign;

1396-1405

(10 years, page 30A)

 

 

 

1404-1413

Huitzilihuitl (II) ruled

for ten years

(Bierhorst 1992, 135)

 

 

1406-1415

WHAT IS THIS?

 

 

 

 

 

 

1416  Huitzilihuitl (II) dies in a year 2 Flint;

1416-1420

(5 years, page 32A)                   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1417  Accession of Chimalpopoca or ‘Smoking Shield’

(page 32A)

 

 

 

1414-1427

Chimalpopoca ruled

for 13 years

(Bierhorst 1992, 135)

 

 

1421-1425

(5 years, page 32B)

 

 

 

 

 

 

1423:  the eighth “pohual xihuitl” begins (maybe 20-year intervals from 1283)  (page 32B) 

 

 

 

 

Chimalpopoca was killed in year 1 Flint

[1428]

(Bierhorst 1992, 82)

 

 

1424  Chimalpopoca dies: it seems wrong

(page 32B)

 

 

 

 

 

 

1425  Itzcoatl or ‘Obsidian Snake’ begins [incorrect]

(page 32B)

 

 

 

1428-1439

Itzcoatzin ruled for

12 years

(Bierhorst 1992, 135)

 

 

1426-1430

(5 years, page 33A)

[1428  Cuernavaca mentioned, maybe a battle there]

 

 

 

Chalchiuhtlatonac, a son of Tezozomoc II, married a daughter of Coxcox from Tetz-coco. This comment is misplaced since it

belongs to Tezozo-moc I, Chalchiuhtla-tonac [and Coxcox] around A.D. 1243

(Bierhorst 1992, 54

and 84)

 

 

1437  Itzcoatl dies

[this is incorrect]

1436-1440

(5 years, page 34A)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Moctezuma I begins

1438 (page 34A).

[Even if at the very end of the year 11 Rabbit, in January 1439, it is wrong.] 

 

 

 

1440-1469

Moteuczoma(tzin) Ilhuicamina ruled for 29 years (Bierhorst 1992, 112 and 136)

 

 

1441-1445

(5 years, page 34B);  “Napohual xihuitl” or ninth 20- year period in 3 Reed = 1443

 

 

 

 

 

 

1446-1450

(5 years, page 35A)

Locusts in year 6 Rabbit [in 1446]

 

 

 

 

 

 

1451-1455

(10 years, pages 35B

and 36A)

1453  Hail or snow destroys the crops; famine and weak men in 1454; New

Fire in 1455: vultures eat human bodies.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1461-1465

(5 years, page 36B);

1463  “Macuilpohual xihuitl” (10th cycle of 20 years?);

1465  Chalco war

 

 

 

 

1469-1477

Ayaxacatzin ruled for

nine years (Bierhorst 1992, 136)

 

 

1466-1470

(5 years, page 37A)

 

1470  Maxtla war

 

 

 

1476 [February 13]

Eclipse of the sun in

year 10 Flint

(Bierhorst 1992, 115)

 

 

1473  War with Tlatilolco

1471-1475

(5 years, page 37B)

 

 

 

1477-1481  Tizoc

ruled for five years

(Bierhorst 1992, 116 and 137)

 

 

1476-1480

(10 years, pp. 38A-B)

Partial solar eclipse in 1479, in year 13 Reed [28 May 1481].

1480   Tizoc begins

 

 

 

1481 [May 28]:

Solar eclipse in year

2 House

(Bierhorst 1992, 116)

 

 

 

 

1486-1495

(10 years, pp. 39A-B) 

Ahuitzotzin rules

In 1490 snow or hail.

1491: Locusts

 

 

 

1481 [wrong]-1502

Ahuitzotzin ruled for over fourteen years

(Bierhorst 1992, 118 and 137)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1501-1519

(24 years, pp. 40-42) 

 

1501: “Water Face” dies

 

 

 

1502: Moctezuma II

begins his reign

 

 

1519: The arrival of

Cortés in Mexico

 

 

 

1486 (year 7 Rabbit)

Ahuitzotzin started

(Bierhorst 1992, 117)

1490  Solar eclipse, stars became visible.

[Incorrect]

1492 [April 26]:

An eclipse of the sun

(Bierhorst 1992, 118)

1493  Solar eclipse,

stars seen. [Wrong]

1496 [August 8]:

An eclipse of the sun

(Bierhorst 1992, 119)

1504  Solar eclipse on a day 12 Death. [No eclipse in 1504]

(Bierhorst 1992, 120)

 

1508 [January 2]:

Solar eclipse in the year 2 Reed

(Bierhorst 1992, 120)

 

1502-1520

Moteuczoma(tzin II)

ruled for 18.5 years

(Bierhorst 1992, 137)

 

 

 

The map (and its chronology) of Siguenza; a version in French from the Internet.

Finding Aztlan and the Mexican “Suns” by Astronomy

 by Zoltan Andrew Simon1 (July 2012)

 1Address: 6 Rutherford Dr., Red Deer, AB, Canada T4P 3G9. E-mail: zasimon@hotmail.com  

 

This paper offers a comprehensible new interpretation of early Mexican history, embracing the absolute chronology of the Aztecs before the Spanish Conquest (1519-21). It clarifies some enigmas of their calendar, with particular emphasis on the question of intercalation. This controversial field is illuminated by additional key dates that were recorded in both the Mexican and the Julian calendars.

The author (63) is a geologist and land surveyor with diplomas. He believes that he identified the last two of the Aztec five suns (ages), based on the Legend of the Suns and other records. The beginning of the Fifth Sun is anchored to the year 1011 C.E by a total solar eclipse visible from Aztlan. The end of the Fourth Sun is fixed by two eclipses six xiuhmolpillis (bundles of 52 vague years) apart. These – by the help of several Mexican codices – offer an unbroken chronology prior to the foundation of the Aztec capital, Tenochtitlan (1318-25 CE).

For the first time in the history of human sciences, the ancient homeland of a nation can be located by its annals and astronomical traditions. In this case the Fifth Sun places the ancestral land of the Aztecs in the Bahamas, near Florida – agreeing with the Mexican beliefs. Astronomy and radiocarbon dating place the first decades of their migration to the south of the Great Lakes.

In a possible sequel of this paper the author, or other expert historians, could re-interpret certain Mexican codices with almost two cycles missing or lost. The Codex Chimalpopoca seems to be the most reliable source for a correct chronology.

 

 

Toltec chronology

 

The Toltec Relaciones of Ixtlilxochitl (1578-1650) can be combined with the Codex Chimalpopoca (1) that correctly placed Tula’s destruction and the dispersal of the Toltecs in 1064 C.E, a year 1-Flint. Here we do not have the space to discuss the further astronomical proofs – the solar eclipses in Mexico – that could form another study about the Toltec “ages.” See the four ages and our chronological table about the Toltecs above.

 

The sequence of the ages in Ixtlilxochitl reflects the arrangement in the Codex Vaticanus A, contradicting the Stone of the Sun. He based his work on a Toltec chronology, not on Aztec traditions.

 

 

The Five Suns of the Mexica: Early Aztec-Nahuatl eclipse records

 

The Annals of Cuauhtitlan (1) shows the earliest candidate for the Fifth Sun, “They say the sun that exists today was born in 13 Reed [751], and it was then that light came, and it dawned. Movement Sun, which exists today, has the day sign 4 Movement, and this sun is the fifth that there is.”

Graulich (2) confirms that the year 13-Reed refers to the birth of the present sun for the Mexica, reminding us that the Fourth Sun more or less coincided with the epoch of the Toltecs. Others (3) wrote of the Stone of the Sun, “...the beginning of the present world – given as 1011 A.D.” Or, “... the Aztec calendar stone, in addition to all its other layers of fascinating information, seems to be a permanent record of an independent observation of an unusual star that was recorded by the Chinese in 1011 ce...” (4). Florescano (5) claims that 1011 was the year of the birth of the Fifth Sun but he does not explain where and why; it was his intelligent guess.

 

A possible explanation for the discrepancy of dates and versions of the Legend of the Suns between the two major groups of traditions (i.e., Toltec and Aztec) is that the “creation” of “the sun that exist today” is datable to a few centuries earlier in central Mexico than in Aztlan (somewhere to the north of Mexico). Aztlan’s inhabitants must have observed a newly created sun – its rebirth after a major solar eclipse – that had not been noticed in Mexico. The different versions of the “Legend of the Suns” are the consequences of the very different locations of the ancient observers.

We cannot mix apples and oranges. Talking about the ages or suns, the Aztec records cannot be mingled or combined with those of the Toltecs.

 

The Aztec ruler Motecuhzoma II was in Spanish captivity for several months, with the opportunity to consult a map of Cortés (Figure 1). That shows many place-names along the Bay of Mexico, including “Florida” (3, 6). He may have been able to match and identify the maps of his empire with those of the Spaniards.

A 16th century record (7) claims that the Aztecs originated from Aztlan, an island near Florida. Maybe Durán’s source was a Spaniard that had witnessed Motecuhzoma’s identification of Aztlan with the region of Florida.

 

The latest suggested year for the Fifth Sun is the year 1427 that may have been the year when the commemorative Stone of the Sun was carved. It does not refer to the eclipse of 1426 about the death of King Chimalpopoca. The “Piedra del Sol” was a monument of thanksgiving for the Fifth Sun. The year-glyph 13-Reed stands out. It may have been carved in 1479 or 1427 but the 13-Reed refers to a cataclysm on an anniversary. The date of its carving seems unimportant or irrelevant.

 

As for the Fifth Sun, “the golden mean in all things” is the best approach between the extreme suggestions, 751 and 1427. A search yields no reasonable candidate for a near total solar eclipse in central Mexico in the proper year but there are excellent candidates to the north.

 

The ancestors of the Mexicans lived in two regions simultaneously: one of the groups in central Mexico, while another group somewhere to the north. A significant geographical separation provided almost totally different key events for their “ages.” Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, floods, famine, plagues, climatic irregularities, and hurricanes would not affect far-away regions equally. The famous Stone of the Sun in Mexico City and the Coronation Stone of Motecuhzoma II both display these carved two glyphs (13-Reed and 4-Movement) together. They cannot be separated. Traditions add that this double event – the earthquake and the eclipse – marked the beginning of the Fifth Sun.

 

Aztec tradition located Aztlan near Florida (7). The Spanish texts have blancura and garzas (‘whiteness’ and ‘herons’). White herons exist only in Florida, nowhere else in North America. Figure 2 shows its snowy egrets (Egretta thula).

Sahagún told a Toltec tradition (6) allowing that their Huehue-Tlapallan (old Tlapallan) may have been the same place as the island of Aztlan. The Mayas remembered an ancient land in the east where long ago different races lived together in peace.

 

Having a preliminary geographic and chronological frame, one can find all the possible dates when major solar eclipses have taken place in North and Central America. We must beware of the possibility that the sequence of the five suns or ages may not have been established correctly everywhere. Their sequence in (1) – that matches the two carved records – and their durations fit well as follow: (1) 4-Water 676 years; (2) 4-Jaguar 676 years; (3) 4-Wind 364 years; (4a) 4-Rain, ending in a year 1-Flint, for 312 years; (4b) Water for 52 years. The “312 years” is probably a rounded figure for six “bundles.” It is logical to identify the end of the fourth age with the year 1-Flint, 1064 when the Mexica left Aztlan, as shown in the Codex Boturini (8).

 

A search for eclipses yields a total eclipse of 12 March 750 in Aztlan near Florida, around the traditional 751. At West End, Aztlan’s nearest point to Florida, the eclipse was total from 17:32:24 to 17:35:19 (local time). The fourth age of the Mexicans is now fixed to 750-1064, an interval of “about 312” years. This age included the inundation of 52 years.

The readers can check the calculation of any eclipse by WinEclipse (9). Its variable Delta-T or clock-time error is the required longitudinal shift of the eclipse paths, caused by the gradual deceleration of the Earth’s rotation. The present author uses improved Delta-T figures in his research, multiplying the values of Scsibrany by a factor of 0.98115.

 

The above interval ended when fiery/dirty rain fell from the sky. After a search of thirty-five years, the present author – originally geologist and land surveyor – kept seeking geological explanations for the cataclysmic events recorded by the Mexicans related to Aztlan.The main difficulty was how to anchor the beginning of the Fifth Sun. Some Mexican traditions remembered only three previous suns. This meant a possibility that the “latecomer” Aztecs must have witnessed the “creation” of a sun in Aztlan that the other earlier settlers already living in Mexico have missed. They agreed that Aztlan (Tlillan-Tlapallan) had been located somewhere in the north or northeast, on an island with seven towns, sitting in a lake or rather a sea. (We could not find there a lake with an island large enough to support such population. For instance, the Great Salt Lake has no fish. The wildlife of its Antelope Island could not have lasted for centuries, etc.) Tlillan-Tlapallan meant the place of the red and black [ink of the scribes, symbolizing knowledge].

 

The search took a better turn by using the WinEclipse program (9), looking for a major solar eclipse outside Mexico in America. There was a real annular-total eclipse of the sun on April 19, 1064 C.E. around Florida. Its magnitude at West End in Grand Bahama (26-31-43 N, -78-41-48 W) was 87.91% at 6:18:20. It is shown (10) that its year was 13-Reed but with a day-sign 3-Dog. However, eleven days later comes a magic day, the important 1-Cipactli (Water-monster). This was the first day of their calendar. We will demonstrate below that it actually meant a shift of twelve days, because the Aztecs began their days at noon (11).

 

Soon after experiencing that terrifying eclipse of the sun, the Mexica began their long migration from Aztlan in 1064, a year 1-Flint (8).The native Chimalpahin’s Nahuatl chronicle (“Historia Tolteca-Chichimeca”) agrees. According to the legend (12), the southward migration began on May 24, 1064 C.E.

 

Tezcatlipoca was already present at the end of the Fourth Sun as a helper. Like Prometheus, he advised a couple to hollow out a big cypress, and when it was the month Tozoztli [April] and the skies come falling down, get inside that boat. (The falling down of the sky may have been the result of a catastrophe predicted for April.) The text (1) continues, “Then Titlacahuan, Tezcatlipoca, came down and scolded them.” The word “he” reveals that Titlacahuan was actually Tezcatlipoca, still alive at the “creation” of the Fifth Sun. He is a chronological anchor, a younger contemporary of Quetzalcoatl. The latter hero was old and wrinkled when Tezcatlipoca showed him a mirror.

Our eclipse took place on April 19 that is consistent with the Aztec month Tozoz(ton)tli.

 

However, this is only one eclipse. The “Legend of the Suns” (1) remembers two calamities, fifty-two years apart. After a flood the water lasted for 52 years. During the first catastrophe even the mountains disappeared within one day, because the sky fell down.

We must find events important enough both for a starting point and an endpoint of a cycle that contained 52 years. The last eclipse took place on April 19, 1064 when an Aztec “god” expected a recurring cataclysm in the Mexican month corresponding to April. (Previously, the land apparently suffered a volcanic eruption, burning and sinking about the time of a total solar eclipse.)

  

People could still see a sinking mountain or hill. The Mexican legend means that those hills sank below the sea level and became invisible. It is unlikely that experts would find sunken mountains in any North American lake. Placing those in the sea is not so unreasonable.

But why did the water last for fifty-two years? Did all that water evaporate on a single day at the end of that period? Does the legend imply that those mountains rose again before the departure of the Mexica? No, it does not. The legend is silent about that. It breaks off. The best explanation is that the Aztecs said goodbye to that ancient homeland at the end of those 52 years. They had enough of the unexpected calamities, the flooded country, the missing mountains, and the disappearing suns. They must have longed for a better country where life was less complicated.

 

Folio 32 of the Códice Ríos has an illustration depicting the glyph “Movement” or “Earthquake” with the symbol of “night” or “star.” A photograph (13) of a Mexican statue of Tonatiuh [the Sun] depicts the glyph of 4-Earthquake (Movement) on his back, with the same glyph of the night (or star?) in the centre, and four smokes or flames on its side. These can be indications that the Sun became so dark on a day 4-Earthquake that a star was seen, or, it became night. It probably refers to an actual earthquake, too. The four flames may represent four visible solar flares.

 

There is reliable historical information (14, 26) about the 1064 C.E. eruption of Sunset Crater, north of Flagstaff. It may have sent a cloud of hot ash to Florida. The Aztec tradition seems correct because a Norse saga in 1064 mentioned a similar phenomenon from around the southern cape of Greenland. A few days later the sailors met their king and reported him the terrible omen, a rain of blood. Now, if tiny particles originated from the burning forests of North America reached Greenland in large quantities, some tephra may have reached the Bahamas region, too.      

 

The deified Ce Topiltzin Quetzalcoatl flourished in the tenth century. According to the Codex Ríos 3 (14v), he prophesied that the word would be destroyed on a day 4-Earthquake. In our system he ruled from 987 to 999 then he departed from Tula.

 

The Mexicans did not know that the world was round. Otherwise, how could the culture-hero Quetzalcoatl have disappeared in the west and reappeared in the east in the person of Cortés? The Aztecs believed that the real sun was unable to go underneath the earth from the western to the eastern horizon. Then, how could a human Quetzalcoatl have performed that miraculous trick? The Mexicans have never claimed that he had circumnavigated South America. He had departed towards the east, so – luckily for the Spaniards – they expected his reappearance from the east. All evidence indicates that Aztlan was located somewhere to the northeast.

 

We should check our anchor, the year 1064, for the beginning of the Aztec migration. The best way is to examine if there was another major eclipse of the sun near Florida 52 years earlier, in a year 13-Reed, or not.

To our total satisfaction, there is a perfect candidate: a total eclipse of the sun almost exactly 52 years earlier in the same region of Florida-Aztlan. It occurred in the morning of August 31, A.D. 1011, in a year 13-Reed (Acatl). The Stone of the Sun refers to this event. It was total for 4 minutes and 27 seconds at West End, ending after 11 a.m. This fits all requirements mentioned above. The mentioning of dawn at the birth of the Fifth Sun may be an ancient recollection that the last sun was born in the morning. Figure 3 showsa map with the totality zone of the eclipse and its details.

 

“In the first year of the second cycle of thirteen years thereafter [after the deluge of 1011] all the four gods came together and said that the earth had no light…” (15). The Codex Ramírez may refer to a real eclipse of the sun that took place on May 29, 1025, with a magnitude of 87% in Grand Bahama.

 

Opinions are divided about the question of the ancient Mexicans’ intercalations. A theory claims that they have not used any leap years or intercalation at all. Others accept the possibility of intercalary days, but have different opinions about the frequency of intercalations and the number of days inserted.

León-Portilla (16) cites Sahagún that once in every fourth year they applied six, not five, days of nemontemi (useless days), to correct their calendar by something similar what we call bissextile in the leap years. Sahagún believed that the extra day had coincided with the bissextile day when they pierced the ears of the infant boys and girls.

If there were a few nameless intercalary days in our system for a few decades before the arrival of Cortés, it would mean that Caso’s day-signs should be shifted back in time (“up”) by several days. Also, the Aztec tradition may have attributed more importance to the terrible earthquake(s) on a certain day than dating the eclipse. Thus, the glyph 4-Movement would refer to the date of the earthquake, not the eclipse. (In our proposed system – due to the possible twelve nameless intercalary days before the spring of 1520 – an upward shift of twelve days is required for dates prior to 1476.)

 

A codex (17) depicts a day 4-Dog with a half sun. The glyph “movement” in the codex is labelled as “sol” (sun). This misinterpretation probably happened because the natives had identified the “last Sun” with the glyph “movement.”

 

Major or total eclipses of the sun are often associated with earthquakes. The Mexican codices frequently mention, “In this year the sun eclipsed and an earthquake took place.” The crust of our planet is sensitive. Eclipses – and even certain planetary conjunctions – often increase the tectonic pressures along fault lines and trigger earthquakes. The total eclipse of 1011 may have been the culprit causing the “disappearance” of some mountains or hills.

The region of the Bahamas is still gradually sinking and the sea level is rising. These do not exclude the possibility of more abrupt changes in the remote past. For example, the Tongue of the Ocean is clearly a rift valley of tectonic origin. It is quite impossible to date exactly its sinking. The submerged caves of the Bahamas with stalactites and stalagmites now under sea level prove that the islands once have been in much higher position, for those formations cannot grow underwater. They may have something to do with the origin of the first Chicomoztoc (“chicome+oztoc,” “Seven Caves”) tradition. The writer saw a scientific program on the TV – probably on Discovery Channel – stating a Lucayan (Bahaman) tradition: they claimed that mankind had originated from the blue holes of the Bahamas. We highly recommend you the books of the late Rob Palmer, a diver expert.

 

We must start thinking in Aztec calendrical terms and shall summarize our fix points that we have got so far. The tricky part is that the Aztecs began their days at noon, according to Folio 48v of the Codex Telleriano-Remensis(11). There is further evidence (18) amongst Mexican nations for a day count from midday to midday. The Aztecs thought, “The sun in its course is only a true sun in the morning; in the afternoon it becomes a false sun, a reflection of the true sun” (19).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table of the proposed key dates and intercalations

(Also see http://www.onlineconversion.com/julian_date.htm)

 

Aztec day           Modern date in    Julian date  Days     Historical event         Source/Note

(noon to noon)   Julian calendar     (JD)             inserted

Note: corrected,                                                 before

different from                                                      reference

Caso’s days                                                        date

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

3-Vulture            31 August 1011    2090568       12       Solar eclipse at

                                                                                         about 10 a.m.

 

4-Movement      31 August 1011    2090568       12       Earthquake in the      Fifth Sun began

or Earthquake                                                                  early afternoon

(Ollin)                                                                             

 

1-Water-mon-   19 April 1064        2109793       12       Eclipse in the             Aztecs left after      

ster (Cipactli)                                                                  early morning            the solar eclipse

 

1-Rabbit             12/13 June 1518    2275670/1    1         Grijalva arrived at

(Tochtli)                                                                           Coatzacoalcos on       (15), p. 636

                                                                                        June 13 (a.m.)            (18), p. 70-71

 

8-Wind               8 Nov. 1519          2276184       1         Cortés entered           Chimalpahin,

(Ehecatl)                                                                          Tenochtitlan (p.m.)    Anales de Tlatelolco

 

7-Vulture            21 May 1520         2276379       0         Alvarado’s massacre

 

8-Vulture            30 June 1520         2276419       0         Night of Sorrow

 

1-Serpent           13 August 1521    2276828       0         Aztec surrender in    

(Coatl)                                                                             the late afternoon

                                                                                         (reference date)

 

12-Lizard           15/16 July 1553     2288487       0         [A Maya year             Diego da Landa      

(Cuetzpalin)                                                                     began]                        (18), p. 71

   

Sahagún recorded that the Aztecs and the Spaniard had spent 195 days in peace, then [after the massacre by Alvarado] had been enemies for forty days till the “Night of Sorrow” (June 30/July 1, 1520). Authorities (18) try to place those 195 days between the ninth day of the month Quecholli (Bird) and the twentieth of the month Toxcatl. However, Quecholli’s ninth day is an improper interpretation of the original data. The informants of Sahagún and Cristóbal del Castillo agree that the Spaniards entered the proper Tenochtitlan – not its suburbs – on the eve of the tenth day of Quecholli. Modern authorities assume automatically that the eve of the tenth day fell on the ninth day. But then none of the sources should have mentioned the tenth day at all, only the ninth day and its evening.

Knowing that the true Mexican sun was visible from sunrise to noon, the eve of that day still belonged to the same Mexican day. The result of this open-minded approach is that the Aztec day 8-Wind lasted from noon of November 8 to noon of 9 November 1519.

 

Experts claim 196 or 197 days between the ninth of Quecholli and the twentieth of Toxcatl. Our solution shows that the 195 days of Sahagún’s informants (18) were correct between the tenth day of Quecholli and the nineteenth of Toxcatl, including a nameless intercalary day that is missing in Caso’s correlation. In the calendar of the Spaniards, exactly 195+40 days have passed from the evening of November 8, 1519 to the tragic evening-night of June 30, 1520.

 

 

Reconstructing the main events of the Conquest

 

The Anonymus Authors of Tlatelolco (20) tell that on a day 8-Ehecatl/Wind (November 8, 1519, JD 2276184)the Spaniards of Cortés have entered Tenochtitlan. They entered Xoloco in the morning and in Tenochtitlan in the afternoon. This was the evening between the ninth and tenth days of the “month” Quecholli (21). In our system, there was a nameless intercalary day inserted in January 1520.

 

On day 7-Cozcacuauhtli/Vulture (May 21, 1520) Pedro de Alvarado’s massacre in the Templo Mayor began before midnight, ending the 195 friendly days (21).

On day 8-Cozcacuauhtli (June 30, 1520) the Night of Sorrow began before midnight (22), ending the 40 days of enmity. The Spaniards fled. The total of 235 days is correct between their entry and departure.

 

An important detail perhaps escaped attention, causing an error of a day in Alfonso Caso’s system for the years 1519-1521. Tenochtitlan’s last king capitulated in the afternoon or evening of August 13, 1521. In this solid and rigid frame the only solution would make the equation work out: the insertion of a nameless intercalary day somewhere between November 8, 1519 and August 13, 1521.

In our proposed new correlation we tentatively inserted a nameless intercalary day at the beginning (January or February) of the following years: 1476, 1480, 1484, 1488, 1492, 1496, 1500, 1504, 1508, 1512, 1516, and 1520, a total of 12 intercalary days.

 

Caso (18) states that modern calculation shows a Mexican solar eclipse on “December 1o” in 1480. His Spanish text, “el día 1o. de diciembre,” actually means the abbreviation of “primero” or “1st” but many readers would render it “the tenth.” Probably this happened with the fist edition of the manuscript of Díaz (22). He may have written “1o. de Julio” for the “Night of Sorrow,” meaning the small hours of July 1, but the editor or the printer has apparently changed his date to “July 10” by mistake, not anticipating its serious consequences.   

The Codex Chimalpopoca (1) placed an eclipse in the year 10-Flint (1476). It must have taken place in the afternoon of February 13, 1477 (JD 2260576). This indicated that the correlation was imperfect there although Caso tried to defend his system following the criticism of Boland Weitzel regarding this discrepancy.

 

“In September 1541, two days after Alvarado’s widow had been installed as governor, the Agua volcano buried the city [of Guatemala, Ciudad Vieja] under mud and water, an event recorded with terse glee in the Maya Annals of the Cakchiquels: On a day 2 Knife the volcano Hunahpú [Agua] swept down; the water gushed … the Castilians perished and died” (23).

An article (24) confirms that the unfortunate event – in which the widow lost her life as well – took place in the night between the 10th and 11th of September, 1541. The Spanish sources do not specify the hour of the night, hesitating between two dates: the tenth or the eleventh of the month. Such hesitation is lacking in the Mexican native sources. The event is not connected with two Mexican days, but only a single date that is 2-Flint. This detail constitutes a kind of evidence, allowing us to assume that the whole night between September 10 and 11 belonged to the same Mexican day-sign. These support the facts mentioned in (23).

A simplified reference (18) to the Annals of the Cakchiquels tells: The widow of Pedro de Alvarado, Beatriz de la Cueva, died on Saturday, September 10, 1541, that fell on the Maya day 2-Tihax. It would correspond to the day 2-Tecpatl in the Aztec calendar. He should have written Saturday or Sunday, September 10-11. Caso’s correlation is correct here, confirming that September 10, 1541 was a day 2-Knife, JD 2284161, Saturday.   

           

Caso’s reasoning is sound regarding the good possibility of misunderstanding and misinterpretation of Sahagún’s informants. They claimed that the celebration of each “month” took place at the end of the month. For the questions of the Spaniards, “When was the feast of that month?” the correct answers may have been given. However, those dates have been misinterpreted as the starting days of those months, instead of their final days. Caso’s observations are very useful in locating the feast of Quecholli on the last day of the “month” Quecholli, and that of the feast called Izcalami on the last day of the “month” Izcalli. However, one may feel that his assumption was a bit arbitrary about the rigid identification of a feast with the very last day of a month. Some of the feasts may have lasted for two, perhaps three, days.

 

 

The correct Aztec chronology based on their codices

 

Some modern scholars (25) claim that the Mexica left Aztlan in 1168 and Mexico-Tenochtitlan was founded in 1364.

Professor Vollemaere (26) accepts 1064 for the beginning of the “Mexica” migrations, as suggested by Chimalpahin, Gama, Veytia and Gallatin (27). Chimalpahin Cuauhtlehuanitzin’s works support the year 1064 for the beginning of the migration. A paper (28) indicates that the dates of Chimalpahin and the Codex Chimalpopoca are generally very reliable. The latter codex (1) claims that the Mexitin (Mexica) set out from Aztlan in 1090 or in 1 Flint (1064) but “all the Colhuaque went their own way” [from Aztlan] as early as 1064. (In the Codex Boturini the Colhua have separated from the Aztecs in 1064, or shortly afterwards.) Old Coatepec-Coatepetl was probably considered as part of Aztlan’s region.

Huitzilihuitzin I’s lost battle at Chapoltepec (1240), their victory in 1243 (1, 8) depicted with the bag full of severed ears of the Xochimilcans, or the long reign of Acamapichtli (1347-1403) would require several additional pages. It involves a complicated reconstruction of the missing decades by collating (11) and the Codex Vaticanus 3738.

 

 

 

Old Coatepec or ‘Serpent Hill’ of the Mexica migration

 

The author feels that the Mexicans rowed up the Mississippi and Ohio rivers and there is little doubt in placing their first Coatepec (“Serpent Hill”) in the state of Ohio. The Great Serpent Mound satisfies all criteria. The Codex Boturini (8), folios 5-6, date the 28 years of Aztec settlement there from 1065 to 1092. Some of the tribes spent shorter time there. The oval at the mouth of the serpent means something being swallowed, perhaps the sun during an eclipse. The ceremonial kindling of the new fire in the oval during the Mexica’s ‘tying of the years’ must date to 1090-1 (1 Rabbit or 2 Reed).

“New radiocarbon dates suggest that Serpent Mound, a one-quarter-mile-long earthen effigy of a snake in south-central Ohio, was built as many as 2,000 years later than previously thought... Two samples of wood charcoal were obtained from undisturbed parts of Serpent Mound. Both yielded a date of ca. A.D.1070... The brightest appearance ever of Halley’s Comet was recorded by Chinese astronomers in 1066. Could Serpent Mound have been a Native American response to such celestial events?” (29, 30).

The writer is of the opinion that the effigy mound is a monument built for the honour of Quetzalcoatl (‘Feathered Serpent’), god of the air, who reappeared in the form of Halley’s Comet for his Mexica nation in 1066. The Codex Telleriano-Remensis depicts several comets as celestial serpents so the two notions are identifiable.

 

The ‘Seven Caves’ still exist (31). Internet links offer intriguing details. One can even find a photograph showing the bent or crooked mountain (Colhuacan) next to (the second) Chicomoztoc (‘Seven Caves.’) They are located near Bainbridge, Ohio. Six of the seven caves (on approximately one acre of land) have been set aside for wildlife restoration and fortunately these caves are not accessible to the public. Perhaps archaeologists should consider excavations there in order to find datable Aztec articles, or at least charcoal.

 

 

References and Notes

 

  1. J. Bierhorst, Ed., The Codex Chimalpopoca (Tucson, University of Arizona Press, 1992).
  2. M. Graulich, Revista Española de Antropología Americana Vol. 32, 87-114 (2002). Web. http://www.tula.gob.mx/CONGRESO/LinkedDocuments/Los_Reyes_de_Tollan.pdf
  3. A. Horan, D. S. Thomson, Eds., Mexico, Library of the Nations series (Alexandria, VA., Time-Life Books, 1986).
  4. R. S. McIvor, Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada Vol. 94, No. 2, 56-60 (April 2000). Web. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/full/2000JRASC..94...56M
  5. E. Florescano, National narratives in Mexico: a history (Norman, University of Oklahoma Press, 2006).
  6. M. D. Coe, America’s First Civilization (New York, American Heritage Publishing, 1968).
  7. D. Durán, D. Heyden, Ed., The history of the Indies of New Spain (Norman, University of Oklahoma Press, 1994).
  8. Wikipedia, Tira de le Peregrinación. [A.k.a. Codex Boturini, Without year.] Web.  http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tira_de_la_Peregrinaci%C3%B3n
  9. H. Scsibrany, WinEclipse [downloadable software], 2005. Web. http://home.ccc.at/heinzscs/
  10. R. Voorburg, Aztec calendar converter. 2003. Web. http://www.azteccalendar.com
  11. E. Quiñones Keber, Codex Telleriano-Remensis: Ritual, Divination, and History in a Pictorial Aztec Manuscript (Austin, University of Texas Press, 1995).
  12. Wikipedia, Aztlán, without year. Web. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aztl%C3%A1n
  13. C. Burland, W. Forman, Feathered Serpent and Smoking Mirror: The Gods and Cultures of Ancient Mexico (London, Orbis Publishing, 1975).
  14. R. M. C. Lopes, The Volcano Adventure Guide (Cambridge University Press, 2005).
  15. H. Phillips, Proceedings [of the] American Philosophical Society Vol. XXI, 616-651 (1883).
  16. M. León-Portilla, Los antiguos mexicanos a través de sus crónicas y cantares (Mexico City: Fondo de Cultura Económica, 1983).
  17. Codex Borbonicus. Web. http://www.famsi.org/research/graz/borbonicus/img_page01.html
  18. A. Caso, Los calendarios prehispánicos (Mexico City, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico, 1967).
  19. M. Graulich, Myths of Ancient Mexico (Norman, University of Oklahoma Press, 1997).
  20. M. León-Portilla, The Broken Spears: The Aztec Account of the Conquest of Mexico (Boston, Beacon Press, 1992).
  21. A. Anderson, C. E. Dibble, Trans., The war of Conquest: How It Was Waged Here in Mexico (Salt Lake City, University of Utah Press, 1978).
  22. B. Díaz del Castillo, The Discovery and Conquest of Mexico 1517-1521 (New York, Farrar, Straus and Cudahy, 1956).
  23. R. Wright, Time among the Maya (London and Markham, Penguin Books, 1990).
  24. S. Perrot-Minnot, Semanario de Prensa Libre No. 85, 19 de Febrero, 2006.
  25. P. Johansson K., Arqueología,” Special edition #26, December 2007 (Mexico City, INAH – Editorial Raíces). Web. http://www.arqueomex.com/PDFs/S9N4cronoEsp26.pdfand http://www.arqueomex.com/S9N5n2Esp26.html
  26. A. L. Vollemaere, Chimalma, first lady of the Aztecan migration of 1064. (2000?) Web. http://www2.nau.edu/~gender-p/Papers/Vollemarapdf.pdf
  27. H. H. Bancroft, The Works of Hubert Howe Bancroft: The Native Races (San Francisco, The History Company, Publishers, 1886).
  28. M. D. Therrell, D. W. Stahle, R. A. Soto, Aztec Drought and the ‘Curse of One Rabbit’ (American Meteorological Society, 2004). Web.

          http://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/pdf/10.1175/BAMS-85-9-1263

  1. J. E. Saraceni, Archaeology, Volume 49 Number 6, November/December 1996.
  2. D. Elwell, Mysterious World (Wheaton, Illinois, 1998-2003). Web.

          www.mysteriousworld.com/Journal/2003/Spring/SerpentMound/

  1. Arc of Appalachia Preserve System (2011). Web. http://arcofappalachia.org/visit/seven-caves.html and http://www.highlandssanctuary.org/Caves/Caves.htm
  2. We appreciate the assistance of several Canadian libraries, particularly in Red Deer College and RDPL, also the Arnprior Public Library in Ontario, all of them within the nationwide interlibrary loan system.
Figure 1. A detail of the map of Cortés (Nuremberg, 1524). It depicts the shoreline of the Gulf of Mexico. “La Florida” is shown at the right, above the western half of Cuba. Figures 2A (David Hall)and 2B (Johnath). A heron called “Snowy Egret” from Florida. (From http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Snowy_Egret, http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Egretta_thula)
Figure 3. The birth of the fifth sun in Aztlan shown on the Stone of the Sun, in a year 13-Reed, on a day 4-Earthquake or Movement: 31 August 1011 CE.
Figure 4 (Details from the Codex Boturini, except B, C and E): A: The Mexicans cross over from Grand Bahama Island to Florida in 1064 C.E. B: The overhanging, bent cliffs of Colhuacan with (the second) Chicomoztoc near Bainbridge, Ohio, near the Great Serpent Mound. C: A sketchy Aztec map depicting Chicomoztoc [apparently the Seven Caves in Ohio, near Bainbridge]. From the Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chicomoztoc D: These Mexicans arrive from the south to the (Great) Serpent Hill in Ohio in 1065 C.E. E: Antique sketch map showing the location of the Great Serpent Mound in Ohio. F-G: These Mexicans spend twenty-eight years at the Great Serpent Mound (Coatepetl) in Ohio (1065-1092 C.E.). H-I: Folios 18-19 of the Codex Boturini: This latecomer group arrives in Chapoltepec (‘Grasshopper Hill’) in a year 5-Reed [1224 C.E] and live there till the year 2-Reed [1247 C.E.]. After the New Fire’s drilling and celebration in 1247, they lose a battle there. J-K: Folios 20-21 depict the captured Aztec King Huitzilihuitl-tzin then his daughter Chimala[tl]xoch (‘Shield Water Flower’) taken to a king in 1247 C.E. Folio 21 shows that the Aztecs cut off the ears of the captured Xochimilcans. The king turns away his head from the stinking sight. (The Codex Boturini and the Codex Chimalpopoca agree quite well on these dates. However, the more accurate Codex Chimalpopoca dates the death of Huitzilihuitl I to 1240/1 and the cutting off the Xochimilcan's ears to the year 1243.)
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